Break-Even Point Formula

Updated on April 5, 2024
Article byWallstreetmojo Team
Edited byWallstreetmojo Team
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

Formula to Calculate Break-Even Point (BEP)

The formula for break-even pointBreak-even PointBreak-even analysis refers to the identifying of the point where the revenue of the company starts exceeding its total cost i.e., the point when the project or company under consideration will start generating the profits by the way of studying the relationship between the revenue of the company, its fixed cost, and the variable cost.read more (BEP) is very simple and calculation for the same is done by dividing the total fixed costs of production by the contribution margin per unit of product manufactured.

Break Even Point in Units = Fixed Costs/Contribution Margin

The contribution margin per unitContribution Margin Per UnitUnit Contribution Margin is the amount you get after removing the variable costs related to the sale of a unit from its total sales. It measures the contribution of a specific product to the Company’s overall profit. read more can be calculated by deducting variable costs towards the production of each product from the selling price per unit of the product. Mathematically it is represented as,

Contribution margin = Selling price per unit – Variable cost per unit

Therefore, the formula for break-even point (BEP) in units can be expanded as below,

Break Even Point in Units = Fixed Costs/(Selling price per unit – Variable cost per unit)
Break-Even Point Formula

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Steps to Calculate Break-Even Point (BEP)

  1. Firstly, the variable cost per unit has to be calculated based on variable costs from the profit and loss accountProfit And Loss AccountThe Profit & Loss account, also known as the Income statement, is a financial statement that summarizes an organization's revenue and costs incurred during the financial period and is indicative of the company's financial performance by showing whether the company made a profit or incurred losses during that period.read more and the quantity of production. Variable costs will vary in direct relation to the production or sales volume. The variable costs primarily include raw material cost, fuel expense, packaging cost, and other costs that are directly proportional to the production volume.

  2. Next, the fixed costs have to be calculated from the profit and loss account. Fixed costs do not vary according to the production volume. The fixed costsFixed CostsFixed Cost refers to the cost or expense that is not affected by any decrease or increase in the number of units produced or sold over a short-term horizon. It is the type of cost which is not dependent on the business activity.read more include (not exhaustive) interest expense, taxes paid, rent, fixed salaries, depreciation expense, labor cost, etc.

  3. Now, the selling price per unit is calculated by dividing the total operating income by the units of production.

  4. Next, the contribution margin per unit is computed by deducting the variable cost per unit from the selling price per unit.

  5. Finally, the break-even point in units is derived by dividing the fixed costs in step 2 by the contribution margin per unit calculated in step 4.

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You can download this Break-Even Point Formula Excel Template here – Break-Even Point Formula Excel Template

Example #1

Let us assume a company ABC Ltd which is in the business of manufacturing of widgets. The fixed costs add up to $80,000, which consists of asset depreciation, executive salaries, lease, and property taxes. On the other hand, the variable cost associated with the manufacturing of widgets has been calculated to be $0.70 per unit, which consists of raw material cost, labor expense, and sales commissionSales CommissionSales commission is a monetary reward awarded by companies to the sales reps who have managed to achieve their sales target. It is an incentive geared towards producing more sales and rewarding the performers while simultaneously recognizing their efforts. A sales commission agreement is signed to agree on the terms and conditions set for eligibility to earn a commission.read more. The selling price of a widget is $1.50 each.

The below-given Template contains the data about ABC company.

Selling Price Per Unit$1.50
Variable Cost Per Unit$0.70
Fixed Cost$80,000

Contribution Margin Per Unit

formula example1.2

Contribution margin per unit = $1.50 – $0.70

  • Contribution margin per unit = $0.80

Based on the above, the calculation of the break-even point can be done as-

formula example1.3

i.e. Break-even points in units = $80,000 / $0.80

  • Break-even points in units = 100,000

Therefore, ABC Ltd has to manufacture and sell 100,000 widgets in order to cover its total expense, which consists of both fixed and variable costs. At this level of sales, ABC Ltd will not make any profit but will just break even.

Example #2

Let us consider a restaurant PQR Ltd selling pizza. The selling price is $15 per pizza, and the monthly sales are 1,500 pizzas. Additionally, the following information for a month is available.


Variable cost –


Variable cost = $8,000 + $1,000

  • Variable cost = $9,000

Therefore, Variable Cost per unitVariable Cost Per UnitVariable cost per unit refers to the cost of production of each unit produced, which changes when the output volume or the activity level changes. These are not committed costs as they occur only if there is production in the company.read more = $9,000 / 1,500 = $6

Fixed Cost –

calculation of break-even point example2.3

i.e. Fixed cost = $4,000 + $3,000 + $1,300 + $700

  • Fixed cost = $9,000

Contribution Margin Per Unit –

calculation of break-even point example2.4


Contribution margin per unit = $15 – $6

  • Contribution margin per unit = $9

Based on the above, calculation of the break-even point can be determined as,

calculation of break-even point example2.5

i.e. Break-even points in units = $9,000 / $9

  • Break-even points in units = 1,000

Therefore, PQR Ltd has to sell 1,000 pizzas in a month in order to break even. However, PQR is selling 1,500 pizzas monthly, which is higher than the break-even quantity, which indicates that the company is making a profit at the current level.

Break-Even Point (BEP) Calculator

You can use the following Break-Even Point Formula Calculator.

Fixed Costs
Contribution Margin
Break Even Point in Units

Break Even Point in Units =
Fixed Costs
Contribution Margin
= 0

Relevance and Uses

It is very important to understand the concept of break-even point formula as it is used to determine the minimum volume of sales quantity required to achieve no profit any loss situation so as to cover the fixed and the variable costs associated with the manufacturing.

In other words, it is used to assess at what point a project will become profitable by equating the total revenue with the total expense. At this point, you need to decide whether the current plan is feasible or whether the selling price needs to be raised or whether the operating cost needs to be controlled or both the price and the cost needs to be revised. Another very important aspect that needs to address is whether the products under consideration will be successful in the market.

In short, the break-even point should be conducted before the start of a business, whether a new venture or a new product lineProduct LineProduct Line refers to the collection of related products that are marketed under a single brand, which may be the flagship brand for the concerned company. Typically, companies extend their product offerings by adding new variants to the existing products with the expectation that the existing consumers will buy products from the brands that they are already purchasing.read more, in order to have a clear idea of the risks involved and decide whether if the business is worth it.

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This has been a guide to Break-Even Point Formula. Here we discuss how to calculate Break-Even Point using the BEP Formula along with practical examples and a downloadable excel template. You can learn more about Excel Modeling from the following articles –

Reader Interactions


  1. wild west says

    good explanation for the pizza ltd.
    the explanation suites it use

    I understand the pizza explanation more

  2. Palawaththe Gamaralalage Jagath Swarnatillaka says

    This is a good lesson .Very easy to understand. Thanks you very much

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