Financial Modeling Tutorials

- Excel Modeling
- Financial Functions in Excel
- Sensitivity Analysis in Excel
- Sensitivity Analysis
- Capital Budgeting Techniques
- Time Value of Money
- Future Value Formula
- Present Value Factor
- Perpetuity Formula
- Present Value vs Future Value
- Annuity vs Pension
- Present Value of an Annuity
- Doubling Time Formula
- Annuity Formula
- Present Value of an Annuity Formula
- Future Value of Annuity Due Formula
- Maturity Value
- Annuity vs Perpetuity
- Annuity vs Lump Sum
- Deferred Annuity Formula
- Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
- IRR Examples (Internal Rate of Return)
- NPV vs XNPV
- NPV vs IRR
- NPV Formula
- NPV Profile
- NPV Examples
- Advantages and Disadvantages of NPV
- Mutually Exclusive Projects
- PV vs NPV
- IRR vs ROI
- Break Even Point
- Break Even Analysis
- Breakeven Analysis Examples
- Break Even Chart
- Benefit Cost Ratio
- Payback Period & Discounted Payback Period
- Payback period Formula
- Discounted Payback Period Formula
- Payback Period Advantages and Disadvantages
- Profitability Index
- Feasibility Study Examples
- Cash Burn Rate
- Interest Formula
- Simple Interest
- Simple Interest vs Compound Interest
- Simple Interest Formula
- CAGR Formula (Compounded Annual Growth Rate)
- Growth Rate Formula
- Effective Interest Rate
- Loan Amortization Schedule
- Mortgage Formula
- Loan Principal Amount
- Interest Rate Formula
- Rate of Return Formula
- Effective Annual Rate
- Effective Annual Rate Formula (EAR)
- Compounding
- Compounding Formula
- Compound Interest
- Compound Interest Examples
- Daily Compound Interest
- Monthly Compound Interest Formula
- Discount Rate vs Interest Rate
- Discounting Formula
- Rule of 72
- Geometric Mean Return
- Geometric Mean vs Arithmetic Mean
- Real Rate of Return Formula
- Continuous compounding Formula
- Weighted average Formula
- Average Formula
- EWMA (Exponentially Weighted Moving Average)
- Average Rate of Return Formula
- Mean Formula
- Mean Examples
- Population Mean Formula
- Weighted Mean Formula
- Harmonic Mean Formula
- Median Formula in Statistics
- Range Formula
- Outlier Formula
- Decile Formula
- Midrange Formula
- Quartile Deviation
- Expected Value Formula
- Exponential Growth Formula
- Margin of Error Formula
- Decrease Percentage Formula
- Relative Change
- Percent Error Formula
- Holding Period Return Formula
- Cost Benefit Analysis
- Cost Benefit Analysis Examples
- Cost Volume Profit Analysis
- Opportunity Cost Formula
- Opportunity Cost Examples
- APR vs APY
- Mortgage APR vs Interest Rate
- Normal Distribution Formula
- Standard Normal Distribution Formula
- Normalization Formula
- Bell Curve
- T Distribution Formula
- Regression Formula
- Regression Analysis Formula
- Multiple Regression Formula
- Correlation Coefficient Formula
- Correlation Formula
- Correlation Examples
- Coefficient of Determination
- Population Variance Formula
- Covariance Formula
- Coefficient of Variation Formula
- Sample Standard Deviation Formula
- Relative Standard Deviation Formula
- Standard Deviation Formula
- Standard Deviation Examples
- Effect Size
- Sample Size Formula
- Volatility Formula
- Binomial Distribution Formula
- Multicollinearity
- Hypergeometric Distribution
- Exponential Distribution
- Central Limit Theorem
- Poisson Distribution
- Central Tendency
- Hypothesis Testing
- Gini Coefficient
- Quartile Formula
- P Value Formula
- Skewness Formula
- R Squared Formula
- Adjusted R Squared
- Regression vs ANOVA
- Z Test Formula
- Z Score Formula
- Z Test vs T Test
- F-Test Formula
- Quantitative Research
- Histogram Examples

Related Courses

## What is the NPV Profile?

NPV (Net Present Value) profile is a graph showing NPV of projects at different discount rates with the discount rate plotted on X-Axis against NPV of the investment on Y-Axis. The relationship between the discount rate and NPV is inverse. When the discount rate is 0%, the NPV profile cuts the vertical axis. NPV profile is sensitive to discount rates. Higher discount rates indicate the cash flows occurring sooner, which are influential to NPV. The initial investment is an outflow as it is the investment in the project.

### Components of the NPV Profile

Following are components of NPV Profile

**Internal Rate of Return (IRR):**The rate of return which makes the projects NPV as zero is called as IRR. It is one of the important factors while considering a profitable project.**Crossover Rate:**When two projects have the same NPV i.e. when the NPV of two projects intersect each other is called a crossover rate.

If two projects are mutually exclusive, the discount rate is considered as the deciding factor to differentiate between the projects.

### Steps to prepare the NPV Profile

Consider there are two projects. To build an NPV profile these steps have to be considered

**Step 1 – Find the NPV of both projects at 0%.**

- Find the NPV for project A
- Find the NPV for project B

**Step 2 – Find the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) for both projects.**

- Find the IRR for Project A
- Find the IRR for Project B

**Step 3 – Find the crossover point**

- If the NPV is greater than zero than accept the investment
- If the NPV is lower than zero than reject the investment
- Of the NPV is equal to the investment than it is marginal

These rules are applicable when it is assumed that the company has unlimited cash and time to accept all projects that come in their way. However, it is not true in the real world. The companies usually have limited resources and have to select a few of the many projects.

### Examples

Let us understand this better by looking at an example.

4.9 (1,067 ratings)

Consider a project A which requires an initial investment of $400 million. This project is expected to generate cash flows of $160 million for the next four years.

Consider another project B which requires an initial investment of $400 million and no cash flows in the next three years and $800 million in the last year

To understand how sensitive these cash flows are to the cash flows let us consider multiple discount rates – 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 18.92%, and 20%

The net present value of these cash flows can be determined using these rates. This is shown below in a tabular format below

Discount Rate | NPV for Project A | NPV for Project B | ||

0% | $240 | $400 | ||

5% | $167.35 | $258.16 | ||

10% | $107.17 | $146.41 | ||

15% | $56.79 | $57.40 | ||

18.92% | $22.80 | 0 | ||

20% | $14.19 | $14.19 |

Another important point to be considered is that if Project Y is taken up at higher rates than the project will have a negative NPV and therefore be unprofitable

(Please note that there are various ways to calculate NPV(Net Present Value) Profile like the formula method, Financial calculator and excel. The most popular method is the excel method)

Plotting this NPV Profile on a graph will show us the relationship between these projects. Using these points we can also calculate the crossover rate ie the rate at which the NPV of both projects is equal.

The following graph is the NPV profile of project A and Project B

As discussed above, somewhere around 15% is the crossover rate. This is depicted in the graph where the two lines of Project A and Project B meet.

For Project B, 18.92% is the rate which makes the NPV of the project as zero. This rate is known as the internal rate of return. As in the graph, this is where the line crosses the X axis

Looking at the different NPV (Net Present Value) profile values it is conveyed that Project A performs better at 18.92% and 20%. On the other hand Project, Y performs better at 5%, 10% as well as 15%. As the discount rate increases the NPV declines. This is also true in the real world when the discount rate increases the business has to put more money into the project this increases the cost of the project. The steeper the curve the more the project is sensitive to interest rates

Consider a scenario where there are two projects which are mutually exclusive. In this case, the discount rate becomes the deciding factor, In our above example when the rates are lower project B performs better. Lower rates are to the left of the crossover rate.

On the other hand, project A performs better at higher rates. That is on the right side of the cross over rate

### Where are NPV Profiles Used?

NPV(Net Present Value) profiles are used by the companies for capital budgeting. Capital budgeting is the process that the business uses to decide which investments are profitable. The motive of these businesses is to make profits for their investors, creditors, and others. This is only possible when the investment decisions they make results in increasing the equity. Other tools used are IRR, profitability index, payback period, discounted payback period and accounting rate of return.

The net present value mainly measures the net increase in the company’s equity by working on a project. It is essentially the difference between the present value of cash flows and the initial investment based on the discount rate. The discount rate is mainly decided on the basis of debt and equity mix used to finance the investment and to pay for the debt. It also incorporates the risk factor which is inherent in the investment. Projects with positive NPV profile are considered the ones which maximize the NPV and are the ones selected for investment.

### Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to NPV Profile. Here we discuss the NPV Profile components, rules for acceptance and rejection along with practical examples and uses. You can learn more about financing from the following articles –

- Advantages and Disadvantages of NPV
- What is Incremental Revenue?
- Importance of Capital Budgeting – Top 10 Best
- 5 Best Techniques of Capital Budgeting
- IRR Examples (Internal Rate of Return)
- PV vs NPV – Compare
- NPV vs XNPV – Examples
- NPV vs IRR – Examples
- Incremental IRR Examples

- 250+ Courses
- 40+ Projects
- 1000+ Hours
- Full Lifetime Access
- Certificate of Completion