Difference Between CPA and CMA
The full form of CPA is Certified Public Accountants and it can be pursued by students who are interested in learning skills pertaining to auditing, management accounting, accounts handling, taxation, etc whereas the full form of CMA is Certified Management Accountant and it can be pursued by students who are keen in learning budgeting and management accounting.
Most students get overwhelmed about CPA exams and CMA and find it harder to choose between the two. But here’s the deal. It all depends on what you want to become. There are a few things you need to consider before picking up one of these accounting certifications.
Do you want to join public enterprises after completing your degree? Know that more than 80% join private enterprises. But if you still think, your option is a public enterprise, then you should definitely go for CPA. Otherwise, if you want to become an accountant or financial advisor in any private industry then CMA would be a great option.
Salary wise also there is a huge difference. A CPA earns 15% more than a non-CPA; whereas, a CMA earns 63% more than a non-CMA. But earning is always not everything. You also need to think about job satisfaction and career interest.
Even if both are comprehensive certifications, CPA offers more options whereas CMA offers a better practical approach in accounting.
Moreover, if one student can do both CPA and CMA, they will get maximum benefits. Now, look at other aspects we’ve articulated for you. Read, think and then decide which option suits you best.
What is a Certified Public Accountant (CPA)?
Once you earn your CPA, you will be able to advise individuals, businesses and organizations to reach their financial goals. People from an accounting background or students who have aspirations in accounting should pursue CPA.
According to the AICPA, it’s said that people who are CPAs will earn at least 15% more than the non-CPAs in the accounting and auditing domain and organizations also prefer CPAs over non-CPAs for their expertise in accounting.
If you complete your CPA, you have the authority to charge as an accountant. CPAs do very well in corporates, but public enterprises are the best place to work for CPAs as they master public accounting once they complete their CPA examination.
What is a Certified Management Accountant (CMA)?
CMA is one of the most reputed degrees with international repute which helps you earn much more than a non-certified accountant (often 1/3rd more).
- CMA is the highest qualification in Management Accounting in the US and it has a presence over 100 countries.
- CMA unlike other certifications in finance domains focuses both on management accounting as well as financial management. Thus CMA is more comprehensive and lucrative to the students compared to other international certifications.
- The exam is computerized and there are over 100 worldwide centers where you can sit for the exam. To pass CMA you only need to clear two exams and each exam is of 4 hours duration which makes it easy for the applicants.
- If you choose to do CMA, you would be able to fill up the loophole of CPA. CPA has a very limited focus on the trade skills which you can cover by studying CMA.
CPA vs CMA Infographics
- Entry Barrier: Getting into CMA is much easier than doing CPA. CMA doesn’t need 150 credit hours and accounting concentration is much less. In the case of CPA, you need to complete 150 hours to get the certification and also immediately after clearing the exam, you will not get the license. You need to separately handle the licensing procedure.
- Exam: CPA has four parts exam schedule and not always convenient for students. Whereas CMA has two parts exam schedules and it’s more convenient.
- Salary differences: If you talk about fresher and students who have no experience in the field, usually fetch similar annual salary after completing their CPA and CMA certification. But as we compare these certifications among mid-level managers, the salary difference is often more than the US $10,000. And CMA wins the bet in salary. And if we do a comparison among people who are about to retire from the industry has almost no difference in salary irrespective of their certifications.
- Approach: There’s also a significant difference in their approach to looking at the finance profession. CMA is more practical whereas CPA is more comprehensive.
- International Repute: Even if the CPA is the most recognized certification of all accounting professions put together, it’s most recognized in the USA. In the case of CMA, the recognition is not only in the USA but in also other 100 countries which include both developed and developing nations.
- Administration: If you compare both the websites of CMA and CPA you would see that IMA has better administration than AICPA. IMA shares all the information in detail and also makes it flexible for students to become CMA. But for CPA, processes are much complex and even all the information is not available on the website. Even IMA has better after service than AICPA.
CPA vs CMA – Comparative Table
|Certification Organised by||CPA is organized by American Institute of CPAs. But they don’t provide license to the students who pass out. The licensing authority is of the Board of Accountancy of the particular state you pass out from.||CMA is approved and sponsored by Institute of Certified Management Accountants (ICMA). ICMA is affiliated by Institute of Management Accountants (IMA). ICMA has more than 40,000 members in 100 countries.|
|Number of levels||CPA is significantly easier if you talk about levels. It has only one level to clear.||CMA has only one level to clear. The level has two parts. Part one is about Financial Reporting, Planning, Performance, and Control and Part two is all about Financial Decision Making.|
|Mode and Duration of exam||To become CPA, you need to hold your nerve as it’s a mammoth exam. If you want to clear CPA, you need to sit for a whopping 14 hours exam.||In CMA, you need to sit for two exams. Each exam will consist of 4 hours duration and each exam will contain 100 multiple choice questions and two 30 minute essay questions.|
|Exam Window||The CPA testing windows 2017 are:|
1st Quarter: January to February
2nd Quarter: April 1 to May June 10
3rd Quarter: July 1 to August September 10
4th Quarter: October 1 to November December 10
|CMA Exam Dates 2017
Jan – Feb Jan 1 to Feb 28
May – Jun May 1 to Jun 30
Sep – Oct Sep 1 to Oct 31
|Subjects||Let’s look at the subjects of CPA.|
1. Auditing & Attestation (AUD)
2. Financial Accounting & Reporting (FAR)
3. Regulation (REG),
4. Business Environment Concept (BEC)
|CMA has only one level, but the level consists of two parts. Each part consists of many subject areas. Let’s have a look at those.
1. External Financial Reporting Decision
2. Planning, Budgeting, and Forecasting
3. Performance Management
4. Cost Management
5. Internal Controls
1. Financial Statement Analysis
2. Corporate Finance
3. Decision Analysis
4. Risk Management
5. Investment Decisions
6. Professional Ethics
|Pass Percentage||Still waiting for 2016 full year’s results. The overall 2015 CPA exam pass rate was 49.9%, a tad higher than the 49.7% in 2014. It has been hovering around 50% for many years.||According to the new syllabus of CMA, the pass percentage is much lower than any other international accounting program. As per the result of June, 2015, the pass percentage of CMA Part One (Inter) is 14% and pass percentage of CMA Part Two (Final) is 17%.
Passing Percentage of December 2016 exam:
CMA Intermediate- 9.09%
CMA Final- 12.71%
|Fees||Let’s sum up the CPA Examination fees:|
CPA examination and application fees: $1,000
CPA Exam review course fee (mid range): $1,700
CPA Ethics Exam: $130 (rounded up figure)
Licensing fees (mid range): $150
Grand Total: $2,980
|After the price increase in July 2015, the registration fee of the exam is now $415 per part, which means you’ll have to pay $830 altogether.|
|Job opportunities/Job titles||Job opportunities for a CPA are many. You can work in a consulting firm or regional or local firms as accountant or financial advisor. The top three job opportunities of a CPA are public accountant, internal auditor and management accountant.||As CMA is one of the best programs of international repute, it pays more as well as gets you job in Fortune 500 companies with ease. Companies like 3M, Alcoa, AT&T, Bank of America, Boeing, Cargill, Caterpillar etc. hire CMA on regular basis. The top jobs for CMA are Management & Cost Accountant, Financial Accountant, Financial Risk Manager, Management Consulting & Performance Management etc. People also hire CMA for their overall financial decision making functions.|
Why Pursue CPA?
Having a CPA degree has many advantages over accountants who just have graduate degrees.
- Once you have a CPA degree, you can have the license to work in any sized firms and you would be more comfortable in working in public enterprises.
- You will have expert level knowledge in accounting, auditing, and taxation and you will be considered authority in these fields.
- Many job opportunities will open up for you. From handling account payable and receivable processes to handling accounting in big firms would be a piece of cake for you.
- Passing CPA is much easier than passing other certified, internationally recognized degrees. Why? Look at the pass percentages! It’s much higher than the CMA.
- It’s being seen that less than 20% of people join in public enterprises nowadays which makes it easier for people who have a CPA degree. Having a CPA license allows them to join public enterprises without any hazards.
- Very few certifications offer multi-potential career opportunities as CPA does. If you become a CPA, you would be able to work in auditing, taxation, management consulting, information technology, and financial reporting.
Why Pursue CMA?
Over 40,000 members in 40 years cannot be wrong. But here are some of the things for which you should pursue CMA.
- If you choose to do CMA, you will get around 63% more in compensation overall non-CMAs who are attached to the accounting profession. It takes more than 3-5 years to get a hike of 63% in accounting jobs as per industry standards.
- Even if most of the people never heard about it, ask industry professionals. In the accounting industry, CMA is a very reputed designation. CMA certification filters out the cream from the mediocre.
- Even if you don’t want to do it, a comparison between CIMA and CMA is natural. Yes, the number of members of CMA is lesser than CIMA. But most of the members of CIMA are from the UK only. In the case of CMA, they’ve 40,000 members in 100 countries. And 100 countries don’t only include all the developed countries; rather developing countries like India, China, and the Middle East are also included in the list of members.
- As per many industry journals, it’s being seen that more than 80% of accountant join private enterprises. Even if CPA is a very worthy degree to have, CMA is more practical as per the industry standards and according to the need of the accounting domain
- There are very few institutes like IMA. IMA makes it easy for CMA students. When other degrees are not offered only by passing exams, IMA designed it in a different way. Students can concentrate on giving exams and then get relaxed about certification.
Both have advantages and disadvantages. Thus, it’s difficult to find the right answer for every student. As a student, if you’re still confused about what to do, the best option is to do both. If you do both, an amazing opportunity will open up for you.
You will be prepared for both public industries and private enterprises. Opportunities like Auditing, Taxation, Management Consulting, Management & Cost Accounting, Financial Reporting, Financial Decision Making will open up for you.
Remember it’s easy to pass CMA if you work hard. But even if you work hard for CPA, there are many barriers along the way. Getting the license is one of them and it is not issued by AICPA. Choose according to your career goals. But if you want the most lucrative option, pursue both.
This has been a guide to CPA vs CMA. Here we discuss the top differences between CPA and CMA professions along with the infographics and comparison table. Do we also discuss why to purse them? You may also have a look at the following articles –