# F-Test in Excel Article byTanuj Kumar ## What is F-Test in Excel?

F-test in excel is a statistical tool that helps us decide whether the variances of two populations having normal distribution are equal or not. F-test is an essential part of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) model.

F-test is performed to test a and gives an as the result. The sample data used in F-test is not dependent. F-tests can evaluate multiple models simultaneously in a large variety of settings.

### How to Enable F-Test in Excel?

The steps to enable F-test in Excel are listed as follows:

1. Step 1: Enable the “Analysis ToolPak Add-In” in your worksheet to use the F-test. In Excel, click on “File” at the extreme left and go to “Options” given at the end. 2. Step 2: After clicking on “Options,” select “Add-Ins” on the left side. Select “Excel Add-ins” in the Manage box and click “Go.” 3. Step 3: In the “Add-Ins” dialog box, click “Analysis Toolpak” and click “Ok.” 4. Step 4: Now, the “Data Analysis” tool will be added to the right side of the Data tab on the . ### How to do F-Test in Excel? (Step-by-Step)

The steps to perform F-test in Excel are listed as follows:

You can download this F-Test Excel Template here – F-Test Excel Template
• Step 1: The data used in the F-test analysis is shown in the following image.
• Step 2: In the Data tab on the Excel ribbon, click on “Data Analysis.”
• Step 3: After clicking on “Data Analysis,” a dialog box opens. Click on F-test and click “Ok” to enable the function.
• Step 4: Enter the range of variable 1 and variable 2. To do this, select the range of cells B3:B14 for variable 1 and C3:C14 for variable 2.
• Step 5: Select the “Output Range.”
• Step 6: Click “Ok” and the analysis of data appears in the selected cell.

### The Working of F-Test

• The F-test is used where we need to figure out whether a critical distinction between the variances of two datasets exists or not.
• The null hypothesis is rejected if the variances of the two datasets are unequal and accepted if the variances are equal.
• The F-test calculates the probability or the likelihood of variation.
• The F-test shows an error if:
1. The number of values of array 1 or array 2 is less than two.
2. The variance of either of the two arrays is equal to zero.
• The F-test cannot be processed on a single sample meaning that two datasets are required.
• The F-test function ignores the text of sample data and gives numbers as the outcome.

### The Examples of F-Test

Some instances where the F-test can be used are listed as follows:

• To analyze the quality of lecture of two professors teaching the same subject
• To test two samples of bottle gourd in two different experimental conditions
• To analyze the scores of two groups in the same field

#1 – What is the difference between T-Test and F-Test?

The differences between the two tests are listed as follows:

– A is used to determine whether a significant difference between the means of two datasets exists or not. In contrast, the F-test is used to determine whether the variances of two datasets are equal or not.
– A T-test suggests if a single variable is statistically significant, while F-test suggests if a group of variables are jointly significant.
– The null hypothesis used in a T-test is that the means of two populations are equal. In contrast, the null hypothesis used in F-test is that the variances of two populations are the same.
– The degree of freedom (df) in the T-test is “n-1,” where “n” is the number of sample values. On the other hand, the degree of freedom in the F-test is “n1-1, n2-1,” where “n1” and “n2” are the number of observations in sample 1 and sample 2.

#2 – What is F Statistic in F-Test?

The F statistic or F value is calculated from the data while performing F-test. The F statistic is a ratio of the variances of the two samples. The F statistic is compared with the F critical value to determine whether the null hypothesis may be supported or rejected.

If the F value is greater than the F critical value, the null hypothesis is rejected. F-tests and F statistics are used to test regressions terms, regression models, equality of means, and so on.

#3 – What is the P-value in F-Test?

The is the probability estimate used in combination with the F statistic to analyze the overall results of the F-test. To accept or reject the null hypothesis, the P-value is compared with the significance level (denoted by alpha).

The P-value is the probability that the results could have happened by chance. For instance, a P-value of 0.01 implies that there is a 1% probability that the results occurred by chance. The individual P values are studied to observe which individual variable is statistically significant.

If the P-value is greater than the significance level, the null hypothesis is accepted. If the P-value is less than the significance level, the null hypothesis is rejected.

###### Key Takeaways
• The F-test function tests whether two datasets have equal variances or not.
• The F-test determines the probability or the likelihood of variation.
• The F-test can easily work with multiple models.
• To use the F-test function in Excel, enable “Analysis ToolPak Add-In.”
• If the variances of the two datasets are unequal, reject the null hypothesis and if the variances are equal, accept the null hypothesis.
• The F-test shows an error if the number of values in an array is less than two or the variance of either of the two arrays is equal to zero.

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