FLASH SALE! - "FINANCIAL MODELING COURSE BUNDLE AT 60% OFF" Enroll Now

# PV vs NPV (Present Value vs Net Present Value)

Updated on April 16, 2024
Article byWallstreetmojo Team
Edited by
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

## Difference Between PV and NPV

Present value (PV) refers to the present value of all future cash inflows in the company during a particular period of time whereas net present value (NPV) is the value derived by deducting the present value of all the cash outflows of the company from the present value of the total Cash inflows of the company.

### What is Present Value (PV)?

PV or Present Value is the sum of all future cash flows discounted at a specific rate of return. Present value is also known as a discounted value, and it helps in determining the fair value of future revenues or liability. The calculation of present value is a very important concept in finance and is also used in calculating the valuations of a company. This concept is also important in determining the price of the bond, spot rates, value of annuities, and also for the calculation of pension obligations. Calculating the present value helps in determining how much do you need to fulfill a future goal like buying a house or paying tuition fees. It also helps you calculate if you should buy a car on EMI or pay the mortgage

The present value is calculated using the equation:

Present value = FV / (1 + r)n

where

• FV is the future value
• r is the required rate of return, and n is the number of periods.

The higher the rate, the lower the return. This is because the cash flows are discounted at a higher rate

We want to know the present value of \$100 in one year, of which the discount rate is 10%

• Present Value = 100/(1+10%)1 = \$91

For eg:
Source: PV vs NPV (Present Value vs Net Present Value) (wallstreetmojo.com)

### What is Net Present Value (NPV)?

, or net present value, is the summation of all present values of a series of payments and future cash flows. NPV provides a method for comparing products that have cash flows spread across years. This concept can be used in loans, payouts, investments, and many other applications. The net present value is the difference between today’s expected cash flows and today’s value of .

It is also an important concept in capital budgeting. It a complex and comprehensive way to calculate and to understand if a project is financially viable. This concept includes many other financial concepts like cash flows, required return (weighted average cost of capital), , , and

A positive present value means that the company is generating revenues more than its expenses and making a profit. It is considered that if the company estimates that a project has a positive net present value, then the project is assumed to be profitable, and a project with is assumed to be loss-making.

Net present value can be calculated using the formula.

Where R1 = Net Cash flow in period one, R2 = Net Cash flow in period two, R3= Net Cash flow in period three, and i = the discount rate

Assume that a company buys a machine for \$1000, which generates cash flows of \$600 in year one, \$550 in year two, \$400 in year three, and \$100 in year four. Calculate the net assuming a discount rate of 15%

• NPV = [ \$600/(1+15)1 + \$550/(1+15)2 + \$400/(1+15)3 + \$100/(1+15)4 ] – \$1000
• NPV = \$257.8

–>> If you want to learn Financial Modeling & Valuation professionally , then do check this ​Financial Modeling & Valuation Course Bundle​ (25+ hours of video tutorials with step by step McDonald’s Financial Model). Unlock the art of financial modeling and valuation with a comprehensive course covering McDonald’s forecast methodologies, advanced valuation techniques, and financial statements.

### PV vs NPV Infographics

For eg:
Source: PV vs NPV (Present Value vs Net Present Value) (wallstreetmojo.com)

### Key Difference

• Present value or PV is the addition of all the future cash inflows given at a particular rate. On the other hand, the Net present value is the difference between the cash flows earned at the various period and the initial investment required to finance
• Present value helps in making investment decisions for cars or to calculate the value of the liabilities, investment decisions related to bonds, , etc. On the other hand, the net present value is mainly used by companies in evaluating capital budgeting decisions. An important point to note here is that it is assumed that every project with a positive net present value is profitable. For a company that has unlimited sources of cash, it can only make such decisions; such a scenario is not possible in the real world. Projects with the highest NPV are selected by a company along with using other metrics like IRR (internal rate of return), PB (payback period), DPB ()
• The calculation of Present value is simply discounting the future cash flow by the required rate of return for a required period. Net present value is, however, more complex, and takes into account cash flows at different periods.
• Net present value helps in calculating profitability while the present value does not help in calculating wealth creation or profitability.
• Net present value accounts for the initial investment required to calculate the net figure while the present value only accounts for cash flow.
• It is very important to understand the concept of Present value; however, the concept of net present value is more comprehensive and complex.

### Conclusion

Present value is the stepping stone to understand the concept of net present value. The application of both these concepts is very important in the decision-making process for an individual and the company. However, other concepts, along with these two, will help the investor or the business manager take more informed decisions.

### Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to NPV vs. PV (Present Value vs Net Present Value). Here we discuss the top difference between NPV(net present value) and PV(present value) along with infographics and a comparison table. You may also have a look at the following articles –