- Valuation Basics
- Enterprise Value
- Enterprise Value Formula
- Equity Value
- Equity Value Formula
- Market Capitalization
- Market Capitalization Formula
- Internal Growth Rate Formula
- Intrinsic Value Formula
- Absolute Valuation Formula
- Assessed Value vs Market Value
- Required Rate of Return Formula
- Historical Cost vs Fair Value
- Large Cap vs Small Cap
- Free Float Market Capitalization
- Market Cap vs Enterprise Value
- Book Value Vs Market Value
- Value vs Growth Stocks
- Book Value Per share
- Fair value vs Market value
- Discounted Cash Flows
- Going Concern concept
- Dividend Discount Model (DDM)
- Gordon Growth Model
- Gordon Growth Model Formula
- Discounted Cash Flow Analysis (DCF)
- DCF Formula (Discounted Cash Flow)
- Free Cash Flow Formula (FCF)
- Free Cash Flow to Firm (FCFF)
- Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE)
- Terminal Value
- Terminal Value Formula
- Cost of Equity
- Cost of Equity Formula
- Risk-Free Rate
- Sustainable Growth Rate Formula
- Beta in Finance
- Beta Formula
- CAPM Beta
- Stock Beta
- Calculate Beta Coefficient
- Unlevered Beta
- Market Risk Premium
- Market Risk Premium Formula
- Equity Risk Premium
- Risk Premium formula
- Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)
- Cost of Capital Formula
- WACC Formula
- Security Market Line (SML)
- Systematic Risk vs Unsystematic risk
- Free Cash Flow (FCF)
- Free Cash Flow Yield (FCFY)
- Mistakes in DCF
- Treasury Stock Method
- CAPM Formula
- Cash Flow vs Free Cash Flow
- Business Risk vs Financial risk
- Business Risk
- Financial Risk
- Valuation Multiples
- Equity Value vs Enterprise Value
- Trading Multiples
- Comparable Company Analysis
- Transaction Multiples
- (Price Earning Ratio (P/E)
- PE Ratio formula
- PEG Ratio Formula
- Price to Cash Flow (P/CF)
- Price to Book Value Ratio (P/B)
- Price To Book Value formula
- Price Earning Growth Ratio (PEG)
- Trailing PE vs Forward PE
- Forward PE
- EV to EBITDA Multiple
- EV to EBIT Ratio
- EV to Sales Ratio
- EV to Assets
- Other Valuation Tools
- Valuation Interview Prep
Required Rate of Return Formula – Table of Contents
What is Required Rate of Return Formula?
The formula for calculating the required rate of return for stocks paying a dividend is derived by using the Gordon growth model. This dividend discount model calculates the required return for equity of a dividend paying stock by using the current stock price, the dividend payment per share and the expected dividend growth rate.
The required rate of return formula using the dividend discount model is represented as,
On the other hand, for calculating the required rate of return formula for stock not paying a dividend is derived using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). The CAPM method calculates the required return by using the beta of a security which is the indicator of the riskiness of that security. The required return equation utilizes the risk-free rate of return and the market rate of return, which is typically the annual return of the benchmark index.
The required rate of return formula using the CAPM method is represented as,
Steps to Calculate Required Rate of Return using Dividend Discount Model
For stock paying a dividend, the required rate of return (RRR) formula can be calculated by using the following steps:
Step 1: Firstly, determine the dividend to be paid during the next period.
Step 2: Next, gather the current price of the equity from the from the stock.
Step 3: Now, try to figure out the expected growth rate of the dividend based on management disclosure, planning, and business forecast.
Step 4: Finally, the required rate return equation is calculated by dividing the expected dividend payment (step 1) by the current stock price (step 2) and then adding the result to the forecasted dividend growth rate (step 3) as shown below,
Required rate of return formula = Expected dividend payment / Stock price + Forecasted dividend growth rate
Steps to Calculate Required Rate of Return using CAPM Model
The required rate of return equation for a stock not paying any dividend can be calculated by using the following steps:
Step 1: Firstly, determine the risk-free rate of return which is basically the return of any government issues bonds such as 10-year G-Sec bonds.
Step 2: Next, determine the market rate of return which is the annual return of an appropriate benchmark index such as the S&P 500 index. Based on this, the market risk premium can be calculated by deducting the risk-free return from the market return.
Market risk premium = Market rate of return – Risk-free rate of return
Step 3: Next, compute the beta of the stock based on its stock price movement vis-à-vis the benchmark index.
Step 4: Finally, the required rate of return formula is calculated by adding the risk-free rate to the product of beta and market risk premium (step 2) as given below,
Required rate of return formula = Risk-free rate of return + β * (Market rate of return – Risk-free rate of return)
Examples of Required Rate of Return Formula (with Excel Template)
Let’s see some simple to advanced examples to understand the calculation of the Required Rate of Return equation better.
Let us take an example of an investor who is considering two securities of equal risk to include one of them in his portfolio.
Determine which security should be selected based on the following information:
Below is data for calculation of the required rate of return for Security A and Security B.
The required return of security A can be calculated as,
Required return for security A = $10 / $160 * 100% + 5%
The required return for security A= 11.25%
The required return of security B can be calculated as,
Required return for security B = $8 / $100 * 100% + 4%
The required return for security B = 12.00%
Based on the given information, Security A should be preferred for the portfolio because of its lower required return gave the risk level.
Let us take an example of a stock which has a beta of 1.75 i.e. it is riskier than the overall market. Further, the US treasury bond’s short term return stood at 2.5% while the benchmark index is characterized by the long term average return of 8%. Calculate the required rate of return of the stock based on the given information.
- Given, Risk-free rate = 2.5%
- Beta = 1.75
- Market rate of return = 8%
Below is data for calculation of a required rate of return of the stock-based.
Therefore, the required return of the stock can be calculated as,
Required return = 2.5% + 1.75 * (8% – 2.5%)
Therefore, the required return of the stock is 12.125%.
Relevance and Uses
It is important to understand the concept of the required return as it is used by investors to decide on the minimum amount of return required from an investment. Based on the required returns an investor can decide whether to invest in an asset based on the given risk level.
The required return for a stock with a high beta relative to the market should have been higher because it is necessary to compensate investors for the added level of risk associated with the investment. Also, an investor can use the required returns for ranking the assets and eventually make the investment as per the ranking and include them in the portfolio. In short, the higher the expected return, the better is the asset.
This has been a guide to Required Rate of Return Formula. Here we discuss how to calculate Required Rate of Return using practical examples along with downloadable excel templates. You may learn more about Valuation from the following articles –