- Valuation Basics
- Discounted Cash Flows
- Going Concern concept
- Dividend Discount Model (DDM)
- Gordon Growth Model
- Gordon Growth Model Formula
- Discounted Cash Flow Analysis (DCF)
- Free Cash Flow Formula (FCF)
- Free Cash Flow to Firm (FCFF)
- Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE)
- Terminal Value
- Cost of Equity
- Cost of Equity Formula
- Risk-Free Rate
- CAPM Beta
- Calculate Beta Coefficient
- Market Risk Premium
- Risk Premium formula
- Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)
- Cost of Capital Formula
- WACC Formula
- Security Market Line (SML)
- Systematic Risk vs Unsystematic risk
- Free Cash Flow (FCF)
- Free Cash Flow Yield (FCFY)
- Mistakes in DCF
- Treasury Stock Method
- CAPM Formula
- Cash Flow vs Free Cash Flow
- Business Risk vs Financial risk
- Business Risk
- Financial Risk
- Valuation Multiples
- Equity Value vs Enterprise Value
- Trading Multiples
- Comparable Company Analysis
- Transaction Multiples
- (Price Earning Ratio (P/E)
- PE Ratio formula
- Price to Cash Flow (P/CF)
- Price to Book Value Ratio (P/B)
- Price To Book Value formula
- Price Earning Growth Ratio (PEG)
- Trailing PE vs Forward PE
- Forward PE
- EV to EBITDA Multiple
- EV to EBIT Ratio
- EV to Sales Ratio
- EV to Assets
- Other Valuation Tools
- Valuation Interview Prep
What is Gordon Growth Model?
As per the Gordon growth Formula, the intrinsic value of the stock is equal to the sum of all the present value of the future dividend. We note from the above graph, companies like McDonald’s, Procter & Gamble, Kimberly Clark, PepsiCo, 3M, CocaCola, Johnson & Johnson, AT&T, Walmart pay regular dividends and we can use Gordon Growth Model to value such companies.
Gordon Growth Formula
There are two basic types of the model – Stable Model and Multistage Growth Model. The stable model assumes that the dividend growth is constant over time however multistage growth model does not assume constant growth of dividend, hence we have to evaluate each year’s dividend separately. However, eventually, the multistage model assumes a constant dividend growth.
Let us now see the Gordon growth formula and examples for each type of model and calculation of stock price:
Stable Gordon Growth Formula
Using stable model, we get the value of the stock as below:
- D1 : it is next year’s expected annual dividend per share
- ke: discount rate or the required rate of return estimated using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
- g: expected dividend growth rate (assumed to be constant)
Other assumptions of the Gordon Growth formula are as follows:-
- We assume that the Company grows at a constant rate.
- The Company has a stable financial leverage or there is no financial leverage involved in the Company.
- The life of the firm is indefinite.
- The required rate of return remains constant.
- The free cash flow of the Company is paid as a dividend at constant growth rates.
- The required rate of return is greater than the growth rate.
Stable Gordon Growth Model Example
Let’s assume that a Company ABC will pay $ 5 dividend next year which is expected to grow at the rate of 3% every year. Further, the required rate of return of the investor is 8%. What is the intrinsic value of the ABC Company stock?
let us find the intrinsic value of the stock using Gordon growth model calculation:
Note, we have assumed a constant growth of dividend over the years. This could be true for stable Companies; however, the dividend growth could vary for growing/declining Companies, hence we use multistage model. Thus, using the stable model, the value of stock is $ 100. Now, if the stock is trading at say $ 70, then it is undervalued and if the stock is trading at $ 120, it is said to be overvalued.
Walmart Stable Dividends
Let us look at Walmart’s Dividends paid in the last 30 years. Walmart is a mature company and we note that the dividends have steadily increased over this period. This means we can value Walmart using Gordon Growth Model calculations.
Multi-Stage Gordon Growth Model Example
Let us take a Gordon Growth Multi-Stage example of a company wherein we have the following –
- Current Dividends (2016) = $12
- Growth in Dividends for 4 years = 20%
- Growth in Dividends after 4 years = 8%
- Cost of Equity = 15%
Find the value of the firm using Gordon Growth Model calculations.
Step 1: Calculate the dividends for each year till stable growth rate is reached
Here we calculate the high growth dividends until 2020 as shown below.
The stable growth rate is achieved after 4 years. Hence, we calculate the Dividend profile until 2020.
Step 2: Calculate Gordon Growth Model Terminal Value (at the end of high growth phase)
Here we will use Gordon Growth for Terminal Value. We note that the growth stabilizes after 2020, therefore we can calculate the Gordon growth Model terminal value in 2020 using this model.
This can be estimated using the Gordon Growth Formula –
We apply the formula in excel as seen below. TV or Terminal value at the end of year 2020.
Gordon Growth Model Terminal value (2020) is $383.9
Step 3: Calculate the Present value of all the projected dividends
The present value of dividends during the high growth period (2017-2020) is given below. Please note that in this example, the required rate of return is 15%
Step 4: Find the present value of Gordon Growth Model Terminal Value
Present value of Terminal value = $219.5
Step 5: Find the Fair Value – the PV of Projected Dividends and the PV of Terminal Value
As we already know that Intrinsic value of the stock is the present value of its future cash flows. Since we have calculated the Present value of Dividends and Present value of Terminal Value, the sum total of both will reflect the Fair Value of the Stock.
Fair Value = PV(projected dividends) + PV(terminal value)
Fair Value come to $273.0
Advantages of Gordon Growth Model
- Gordon growth model is highly useful for stable Companies; the Companies which have good cash flow and limited business expenses.
- The valuation model is simple and easy to understand with its inputs available or can be assumed from the financial statements and annual reports of the Company.
- The model does not account for market conditions, hence can be used to evaluate or compare Companies of different sizes and from different industries.
- The model is widely used in real estate industry by real estate investors, agents where the cash flows from rents and their growth is known.
Disadvantages of Gordon Growth Model
Besides the above advantages of the Gordon Growth Model, there are a lot of disadvantages and limitations of the model as well:
- The assumption of constant dividend growth is the main limitation of the model. It will be difficult for the Companies to maintain constant growth throughout their life due to different market conditions, changes in business cycles, financial difficulties etc.
- If the required rate of return is less than the growth rate, the model may result in negative value thus the model is ineffective in such cases.
- The model does not account for market conditions or other non-dividend paying factors like size of the Company, the brand value of the Company, market perception, local and geopolitical factors. All these factors affect the actual stock value and hence, the model does not provide a holistic picture of the intrinsic stock value.
- The model cannot be used for Companies which have irregular cash flows, dividend patterns or financial leverage.
- The model cannot be used for Companies in the growing stage which do not have any dividend history or it has to be used with more assumptions.
Gordon growth model although simple to understand, is based on a number of critical assumptions thus has its own limitations. However, the model can be used for stable Companies having a history of dividend payments and future growth. For more unpredictable Companies, the multistage model could be used by taking into account some more realistic assumptions.
This has been a guide to Gordon Growth Model. Here we looked at types of models, Gordon Growth Model Formulas, its assumptions along with practical examples and applications. Also, discussed are the advantages and disadvantages of using such a model to value a firm. You may also have a look at related articles on Valuation –