Financial Modeling Tutorials

- Financial Modeling Basics
- Excel Modeling
- Financial Functions in Excel
- Sensitivity Analysis in Excel
- Sensitivity Analysis
- Capital Budgeting Techniques
- Time Value of Money
- Future Value Formula
- Present Value Factor
- Perpetuity Formula
- Present Value vs Future Value
- Annuity vs Pension
- Present Value of an Annuity
- Doubling Time Formula
- Annuity Formula
- Annuity vs Perpetuity
- Annuity vs Lump Sum
- Deferred Annuity Formula
- Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
- IRR Examples (Internal Rate of Return)
- NPV vs XNPV
- NPV vs IRR
- NPV Formula
- NPV Profile
- NPV Examples
- PV vs NPV
- IRR vs ROI
- Break Even Point
- Payback Period & Discounted Payback Period
- Payback period Formula
- Discounted Payback Period Formula
- Profitability Index
- Cash Burn Rate
- Simple Interest
- Simple Interest vs Compound Interest
- Simple Interest Formula
- CAGR Formula (Compounded Annual Growth Rate)
- Effective Interest Rate
- Loan Amortization Schedule
- Mortgage Formula
- Loan Principal Amount
- Interest Rate Formula
- Rate of Return Formula
- Effective Annual Rate
- Effective Annual Rate Formula (EAR)
- Daily Compound Interest
- Monthly Compound Interest Formula
- Discount Rate vs Interest Rate
- Rule of 72
- Geometric Mean Return
- Real Rate of Return Formula
- Continuous compounding Formula
- Weighted average Formula
- Average Formula
- Average Rate of Return Formula
- Mean Formula
- Mean Examples
- Population Mean Formula
- Weighted Mean Formula
- Harmonic Mean Formula
- Median Formula in Statistics
- Range Formula
- Outlier Formula
- Decile Formula
- Midrange Formula
- Quartile Deviation
- Expected Value Formula
- Exponential Growth Formula
- Margin of Error Formula
- Decrease Percentage Formula
- Percent Error Formula
- Holding Period Return Formula
- Cost Benefit Analysis
- Cost Benefit Analysis Examples
- Cost Volume Profit Analysis
- Opportunity Cost Formula
- Opportunity Cost Examples
- Mortgage APR vs Interest Rate
- Normal Distribution Formula
- Standard Normal Distribution Formula
- Normalization Formula
- Bell Curve
- T Distribution Formula
- Regression Formula
- Regression Analysis Formula
- Multiple Regression Formula
- Correlation Coefficient Formula
- Correlation Formula
- Population Variance Formula
- Covariance Formula
- Coefficient of Variation Formula
- Sample Standard Deviation Formula
- Relative Standard Deviation Formula
- Standard Deviation Formula
- Volatility Formula
- Binomial Distribution Formula
- Quartile Formula
- P Value Formula
- Skewness Formula
- R Squared Formula
- Adjusted R Squared
- Regression vs ANOVA
- Z Test Formula
- F-Test Formula
- Quantitative Research

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## Capital Budgeting Techniques

Capital budgeting techniques help to determine whether the long term investments like the new plants, new machinery, and research development products are worth the cash investment by the firm.

The top 5 capital budgeting techniques are as below:-

- Profitability index
- Payback period
- Net present value
- Internal rate of return
- Modified rate of return

Let us discuss these capital budgeting techniques one by one in detail –

### Top 5 Capital Budgeting Techniques (with examples)

Now we will discuss the Capital budgeting methods one by one with examples.

#### #1 – Profitability Index

Profitability Index is one of the most important techniques of capital budgeting and it signifies a relationship between the investment of the project and the payoff of the project.

The formula of profitability index given by:-

**Profitability Index = PV of future cash flows / PV of initial investment**

Where PV is the present value.

It is mainly used for ranking projects. According to the rank of the project, a suitable project is chosen for investment.

#### #2 – Payback Period

This method of capital budgeting helps to find a profitable project. The payback period is calculated by dividing the initial investment by the annual cash flows. But the main drawback is it ignores the time value of money. By time value of money, we mean that money is more today than the same value in the future. So if we payback to an investor tomorrow, it includes an opportunity cost. As already mentioned, the payback period disregards the time value of money.

It is calculated by how many years it is required to recover the amount of investment done. Shorter paybacks are more attractive than longer payback periods. Let’s calculate the payback period for the below investment:-

##### Example

For example, there is an initial investment of ₹1000 in a project and it generates a cash flow of ₹ 300 for the next 5 years.

Therefore the payback period is calculated as below:

- Payback period = no. of years – (cumulative cash flow/cash flow)
- Payback period = 5- (500/300)
- = 3.33 years

Therefore it will take 3.33 years to recover the investment.

#### #3 – Net Present Value

Net Present value is the difference between the present value of incoming cash flow and the outgoing cash flow over a certain period of time. It is used to analyze the profitability of a project.

The formula for the calculation of NPV is as below:-

4.9 (927 ratings)

**NPV = [Cash Flow / (1+i)**

^{n}] – Initial InvestmentHere i is the discount rate and n is the number of years.

##### Example

Let us see an example to discuss it.

Let us assume the discount rate is 10%

- NPV = -1000 + 200/(1+0.1)^1 + 300/(1+0.1)^2+400/(1+0.1)^3+600/(1+0.1)^4+ 700/(1+0.1)^5
- = 574.731

We can also calculate it by excel formula.

There is in-built excel formula of “NPV” which can be used. The discounting rate and the series of cash flows from the 1^{st} year to the last year is taken as arguments. We should not include the year zero cash flow in the formula. We should later subtract it.

- = NPV (Discount rate, cash flow of 1
^{st}year: cash flow of 5^{th}year) + (-Initial investment) - = NPV (10%, 200:700) – 1000
- = 574.731

As NPV is positive, it is recommended to go ahead with the project. But not only NPV, but IRR is also used for determining the profitability of the project.

#### #4 – Internal rate of return

The Internal rate of return is also among the top capital budgeting techniques that are used to determine whether the firm should take up the investment or not. It is used together with NPV to determine the profitability of the project.

IRR is the discount rate when all the NPV of all the cash flows is equal to zero.

**NPV = [Cash Flow / (1+i)**

^{n}] – Initial Investment =0Here we need to find “i” which is the **discount rate**.

##### Example

Now we shall discuss an example to understand the internal rate of return in a better way.

While calculating, we need to find out the rate at which NPV is zero. This is usually done by error and trial method else we can use excel for the same.

Let us assume the discount rate to be 10%.

NPV at a 10 % discount is ₹ 574.730.

So we need to increase the discount percentage to make NPV as 0.

So if we increase the **discount rate to 26.22 %,** the NPV is 0.5 that is almost zero.

There is in-built excel formula of “IRR” which can be used. The series of cash flows is taken as arguments.

- =IRR (Cash flow from 0 to 5
^{th}year) - = 26 %

Therefore in both the ways, we get** 26 %** as the internal rate of return.

#### #5 – Modified Internal Rate of return

The main drawback of internal rate of return that it assumes that the amount will be reinvested at the IRR itself which is not the case. MIRR solves this problem and reflects the profitability in a more accurate manner.

The formula is as below:-

**MIRR= (FV (Positive cash flows* Cost of capital)/ PV(Initial outlays * Financing cost))**

^{1/n −1}Where,

- N = the number of periods
- FVCF = the future value of positive cash flow at the cost of capital
- PVCF = the present value of negative cash flows at the financing cost of the company.

##### Example

We can calculate MIRR for the below example:

Let us assume the cost of capital at 12%. In MIRR we need to take into account the reinvested rate which we assume as 14%. In Excel, we can calculate as the below formulae

- MIRR= (cash flows from year 0 to 4
^{th}year, cost of capital rate, reinvestment rate) - MIRR= (-1000: 600, 12%, 14%)
- MIRR= 22%

Modified rate of return is a better estimation than an internal rate of return.

### Conclusion

Therefore capital budgeting methods help us to decide the profitability of investments which needs to be done in a firm. There are different techniques to decide the return of investment.

### Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Capital Budgeting Techniques. Here we will discuss the Top 5 methods of Capital Budgeting along with formula, explanation & examples. You can learn more about accounting from following articles –

- Top Capital Budgeting Methods
- What is a Capital Budgeting?
- Nominal Rate of Return | Definition
- Top 10 Importance of Capital Budgeting
- NPV Profile
- Differences between NPV vs XNPV
- NPV vs IRR – Compare and Contrast
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