Credit Exposure

Article byKhalid Ahmed
Edited byRashmi Kulkarni
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

Credit Exposure Definition

Credit Exposure refers to the potential full-impact loss that a lender is likely to face if a borrower defaults on a loan. It is a crucial determinant of the efficacy of credit decisions. It helps estimate losses in adverse situations, facilitates credit management, promotes efficient financial resource allocations, and enforces compliance.

Credit Exposure

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Lenders use it to quantify potential financial losses, prepare for contingencies, and mitigate losses through strategy implementation. It helps lenders, banks, and financial institutions determine suitable credit terms and interest rates. Risk management is a key task undertaken by entities based on the estimated credit exposure to which they are vulnerable. The exposure at default (EAD) formula helps compute the potential losses.

Key Takeaways

  • Credit Exposure refers to the total or maximum loss lenders, banks, or other entities might have to bear in case a borrower fails to meet their financial obligations. While credit risk indicates the probability of loss, credit exposure measures the entire loss in the context of the credit portfolio.
  • It assesses potential losses associated with lending activities, optimizes credit portfolios, effectively allocates resources, and monitors adherence to regulatory requirements within financial institutions.
  • It computes maximum losses in case of default, while credit limit defines the maximum amount a borrower is allowed to access. Credit risk quantifies the likelihood of borrower default.

Credit Exposure Explained

Credit exposure refers to the maximum loss possible, i.e., the highest amount borne, if a borrower dishonors the terms of an agreement. In short, it outlines the calculated risk of lending to borrowers against the corresponding probability of default. It has been in use for years, guiding the lending or credit activities of banks and other lenders. Various financial institutions, investment firms, credit card companies, and banks employ this concept to safeguard their capital.

Banks monitor off-balance-sheet credit exposure and the open credit exposure ratio to mitigate potential financial risks. As credit directly impacts lenders’ overall financial health and profitability, they minutely track this metric. Financial institutions and banks calculate credit exposure to ascertain the maximum loss possible in each credit case.

Applications from borrowers are reviewed, and certain parameters are analyzed to understand the chances of default. The default probability is one such key metric that enables lenders or other entities facing credit risk to identify and quantify the risk in monetary terms.

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Lenders also compute the net amount receivable from borrowers. They calculate the total percentage of recoverable exposure from collateral if the borrower defaults. Collaterals play a key role in ascertaining the amount lenders can recover in case of default. Collateral is security in a tangible form, which can be sold to recover loans in cases of non-payment.

Credit ratings are considered a reliable indicator of creditworthiness in the industry. Lenders prioritize loan applications from borrowers with good credit ratings while avoiding borrowers with low ratings. This parameter is given importance while considering the credit risk level of a loan account. By handling credit exposure efficiently, lenders minimize the default risk and maintain the health of their loan portfolio.

How To Calculate?

It is vital to calculate the credit exposure before sanctioning loans. Banks use the following methods to calculate credit exposure.

Method #1

Three credit exposure factors are considered to calculate exposure.

  • Default probability: It evaluates the probability of the borrower’s inability to make timely repayments. Financial analysis and credit scoring models are used to calculate probability default.
  • Exposure: The amount expected to be collected from the borrower by the lender during the entire credit duration. It consists of relevant charges, interest, and principal amount.
  • Recovery rates: The net value of collateral will be liquidated if the borrower defaults. It gives the percentage of total exposure if the borrower defaults.

Combining the above, the credit exposure formula is derived:

Credit Exposure = Probability of Default × Exposure × (Loss rate)

Where, loss rate = 1 − Recovery Rates

Method #2

This calculates a borrower’s creditworthiness using certain indicators.

  • Credit Score: Credit scoring models like FICO assess a borrower’s creditworthiness by assigning a credit score. A higher credit score indicates lower risk.
  • Debt-to-Income Ratio: Lenders examine a borrower’s current financial situation using the debt-to-income ratio. It helps them assess a borrower’s ability to pay off debt, given their current income levels.
  • Five Cs: Lenders gauge risk through the five Cs – Character, Capacity, Capital, Collateral, and Conditions.

Some statistical methods are widely used for credit exposure computation. These include:

  • Current Exposure (CE), which measures the current credit exposure or current value of exposure a lender or entity is vulnerable to in the given conditions.
  • Potential Future Exposure (PFE) is a reliable method to compute the exact amount (maximum) a lender can expect to lose if the borrower defaults at a specified time in the future.

Examples

Let us use a few examples to understand the topic.

Example #1

A 2023 report states the risk exposure of European insurers to bank corporate credit and AT1 bonds despite the Credit Suisse crisis is low, even when their bonds lost considerable value in the market (after the Credit Suisse debacle). JP Morgan ran an analysis, which shows limited exposure, summing up to around 6% to AT1 bonds and bank corporate credit.

This is because the risk mitigation strategies of insurers like AXA, Generali, and Allianz have paid off. The policyholders of these companies will play a key role in reducing the AT1 losses by 60% to 90%. The recent Credit Suisse case, where AT1 bonds depreciated, underscores the need to manage investment credit exposure.

Example #2

Consider ABC Creditors lent $100,000 to XYZ Mobile. The credit exposure of ABC Creditors was $100,000, which represented their potential loss if XYZ Mobile failed to honor its financial obligation. ABC Creditors established a $125,000 credit limit, expressing readiness to lend up to that sum to enable XYZ Mobile to meet its financial requirements. XYZ Mobile’s financial accounts and credit history were examined to estimate the chances of default. Based on this information, the loan was sanctioned.

Credit Exposure vs Credit Limit vs Credit Risk

The three concepts discussed below are related to credit, but their application and significance differ. These have been highlighted in the table below:

BasisCredit ExposureCredit LimitCredit Risk
DefinitionThis is the full loss lenders might suffer due to borrower default (non-payment).The maximum limit a borrower can get from a bank, lender, or any entity that is entitled to receive payments from a borrower or user.This is the risk of default, which indicates the probability of a borrower not meeting their contractual obligations.
ScopeIt outlines the maximum potential financial loss to the lender. It acts as a boundary, where lenders do not extend credit beyond a certain number. This is based on a borrower’s creditworthiness and repayment capacity and timeliness. It evaluated risks related to a borrower’s repayment ability. Hence, it is also called default risk.
Credit Agreements TypesIt comprises guarantees, transactions, securities, loans, and deposits.This is a fixed amount set by lenders based on a borrower’s ability.While credit exposure measures the full impact of losses, credit risk measures the impact of not meeting specific contractual obligations across loans, securities, etc.
MethodologyIt helps in regulatory compliance and risk assessment portfolio management. It checks credit utilization and borrower spending.It facilitates credit portfolio management and decision-making. 
Risk ComputationIf the borrower defaults, it becomes Exposure at Default (EAD).It restricts borrowers from exceeding the defined limit for credit.It facilitates risk management and promotes wise credit decisions.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. How to update credit exposure in Sap?

Effectively managing credit exposure in SAP requires setting personalized credit limits, vigilant transaction monitoring, and automated credit checks. It also needs regular evaluation, aligning limits with customer creditworthiness and financial history.

2. What does credit exposure mean in banking?

Credit exposure in banking refers to the potential financial loss from a counterparty or borrower failing to meet their obligations. It encompasses funds exposed in transactions like loans and derivatives. Banks manage and mitigate loan risks by assessing creditworthiness, collateral, and contract terms.

3. How do I check credit exposure in Sap?

To check one’s credit exposure in SAP, access the customer master record and navigate to the “Credit Overview” page. Then, examine the information pertaining to open orders, deliveries, and invoices. SAP may issue warnings or impose order restrictions if the defined credit limit is crossed.

4. What is credit exposure in sales?

It refers to the maximum loss a business might face when customers fail to release payments for the total outstanding or unpaid invoices they hold. From the business perspective, all accounts receivable (from customers) are potential losses if customers default on them.

This article has been a guide to Credit Exposure and its definition. We explain its examples, how to calculate it, and comparison with credit limit & risk. You may also find some useful articles here –

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