All Weather Portfolio

Article byKhalid Ahmed
Edited byRaisa Ali
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

All Weather Portfolio Definition

The all weather portfolio is a dynamic investment strategy designed to thrive in various economic scenarios. Conceived by Ray Dalio in 1996, this approach aims to deliver stable returns during both bull and bear markets and periods of inflation and deflation.

All Weather Portfolio

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The portfolio comprises 15% hard assets, 30% U.S. stocks, and 55% U.S. bonds. It is particularly well-suited for investors who prioritize steady growth while also aiming to preserve capital. This strategy can be implemented using low-cost exchange-traded funds (ETFs), making it accessible to many investors. Additionally, it facilitates active management by fund managers. Notably, Dalio’s firm Bridgewater Associates manages a significant portion of all-weather portfolios.

Key Takeaways

  • The All Weather Portfolio conceived by Ray Dalio is a dynamic investment approach designed to excel regardless of economic circumstances. Constructing an effective all-weather portfolio involves selecting core asset classes, achieving balance, and maintaining resilience through regular rebalancing.
  • Ray Dalio conceived this strategy in 1996 to achieve consistent returns during bullish and bearish markets and periods of inflation and deflation.
  • The all weather portfolio’s design aims to navigate various economic challenges. It seeks to minimize losses and maintain stability during market fluctuations by combining different assets and adjusting allocations.

All Weather Portfolio Explained

The all weather portfolio is a technically defined investment approach designed to thrive in diverse economic conditions. Established in 1996, it has experienced rapid growth, reaching $46 billion in assets by 2011, primarily consisting of Dalio’s trust assets. Dalio’s firm Bridgewater Associates sought to create a passive income strategy capable of navigating all economic situations without relying on future condition predictions. The portfolio is committed to aligning its performance with its objectives. Since February 2006, it has delivered an annual compounded return of 6%.

Over time, it has consistently provided reliable returns with fewer losses than conventional options. Examining its pros and cons, it offers a solution for investors concerned about emotional decision-making and seeking capital preservation with reasonable growth.

The Ray Dalio All Weather Portfolio has attracted significant attention due to its unique approach. Its remarkable performance underscores its ability to withstand various economic conditions. Investors are particularly drawn to the all weather portfolio ETF options, which offer convenient access to this well-balanced strategy.

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How To Build?

Building an all-weather portfolio requires a prudent approach that encompasses various factors. It’s crucial to allocate funds across diverse assets to create a portfolio capable of thriving in all economic conditions. Follow the steps below to construct a successful all-weather portfolio:

  • Establish a Strong Foundation with Asset Classes: Select core asset classes for your portfolio, such as commodities, stocks, cash, and bonds.
  • Achieve Balance with Asset Allocation: Allocate a percentage of your total investments to each asset class based on your financial goals and risk tolerance.
  • Maintain Resilience through Portfolio Rebalancing: Regularly monitor your assets and adjust your portfolio allocation to maintain your intended balance as asset values fluctuate.
  • Consider ETFs or Efficient Index Funds: Utilize ETFs or low-cost index funds to represent chosen asset classes. These options reduce costs and offer exposure to a diversified range of investments.
  • Adopt a Long-Term Vision and Patience: The all-weather portfolio is designed for long-term investing, so practice patience and avoid impulsive decisions during market volatility.
  • Prioritize Diversification within Asset Classes: Focus on diversification within each asset class, including geographic regions, sectors, and industries.
  • Emphasize Core-Satellite Balance: Combine mainstream assets (core holdings) with alternative assets (satellite holdings) to enhance adaptability, flexibility, and risk-adjusted returns.
  • Leverage Global Equity Allocation: Integrate global equity funds to diversify your equity exposure. This approach reduces dependence on the performance of a single economy by incorporating international market exposure.


Let us use a few examples to understand the topic better:

Example # 1

Imagine David is an investor planning his financial future. To create a specific all weather portfolio, David divides his investments into different parts to ensure stability and growth, no matter the economic conditions.

David allocates 30% of his investments to U.S. stocks, hoping for growth when the economy is doing well. Another 55% goes into U.S. bonds, which tend to do better when the economy is uncertain or facing challenges. To protect against potential economic downturns, he put 15% of his investments into hard assets like gold and commodities.

By having this mix, he is prepared for various scenarios. If the stock market booms, he will benefit from the growth in his stocks. If the economy falters, his bonds and hard assets can help cushion the impact on his overall portfolio.

Example # 2

Toews Asset Management’s CEO, Phillip Toews, focuses on constructing all-weather portfolios that can withstand severe economic downturns like those experienced in 2022. He noticed the limitations of the conventional 60/40 portfolio, stating that historical instances, such as the Great Depression, demonstrate its vulnerability to significant losses. Phillip Toews’ perspective challenges conventional investment strategies and emphasizes the importance of building portfolios tailored to address various historical outcomes. 

Pros And Cons  

Let us look at the advantages and disadvantages of the portfolio; 

Pros of all weather portfolio:

  • Reduces risk and enhances portfolio diversification.
  • Demonstrates resilience in unfavorable market conditions and volatility.
  • Shows success in long-term investment approaches.
  • Managed by professionals/firms like Bridgewater Associates.
  • Maintains portfolio diversity and controlled volatility.
  • Minimizes losses during challenging market phases.

Cons of all weather portfolio:

  • Offers lower returns compared to certain other investment strategies.
  • It can be challenging to create, plan, manage, and implement.
  • Not well-suited for investors seeking high returns or short-term gains.
  • Requires regular portfolio rebalancing to maintain allocations.
  • Some components, like gold, can exhibit volatility.
  • May underperform during strong bullish market periods.

All Weather Portfolio vs Permanent Portfolio

Let’s use the table below to discuss the differences between the two:

All weather portfolioPermanent portfolio
A mixture of hard assets (gold + commodities), U.S. bonds, and stocks.All four assets – stocks, bonds, gold, and cash are equally allocated.
Thrives in tough economic situations by adapting to different scenarios.Focuses on capital preservation and risk reduction.
Flourishes during deflation, bear markets, inflation, and bull markets.Molded to endure extremely challenging economic conditions.
Professionally managed.Personally or investor-managed.
Not significantly affected by market turbulence.May lag during strong bull markets.
Requires continuous asset monitoring and portfolio rebalancing.Investors find it simple to monitor and implement.
Attracts investors seeking stability, resilience, and growth.Suits risk-averse individuals and conservative investors.
Emphasizes consistent returns over a long period.Focuses on sustaining wealth over time.
Needs alignment with individual risk tolerance.Already aligned with risk tolerance from the start.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. Can the all weather portfolio guarantee specific returns? 

The all weather portfolio is designed for stable performance across various economic conditions but cannot guarantee specific returns due to market unpredictability. Its focus is on minimizing risk and achieving consistent growth over the long term.

2. Is the all weather portfolio suitable for every investor? 

While the all weather portfolio offers stability and balanced growth, its suitability varies. It’s ideal for investors to prioritize consistent returns and capital preservation. Yet, individual financial goals, risk tolerance, and investment horizon should be considered before adopting the strategy.

3. Is the all weather portfolio still relevant? 

Yes, the all weather portfolio remains relevant as it addresses the challenge of market volatility and uncertainty. Its ability to adapt to diverse economic scenarios makes it a valuable option for investors seeking stable growth. However, ongoing assessment and potential adjustments are recommended to ensure its effectiveness in evolving market conditions.

This has been a guide to All Weather Portfolio & its definition. We compare it with permanent portfolio, explain how to build it, its examples, pros & cons. You can learn more about it from the following articles –

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