Federal Open Market Committee

Updated on January 29, 2024
Article byWallstreetmojo Team
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What Is The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)?

The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) is recognized as that branch of the Federal Reserve System (FRS) which governs the open market operations (OMO) in the United States. The FOMC’s aims revolve around maintaining price stability, promoting maximum employment, fostering economic growth, ensuring financial stability, and enhancing communication.

Federal Open Market Committee

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The FOMC is composed of 12 members, which include the seven members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and five Reserve Bank presidents. One of the critical tools at the disposal of the FOMC is open market operations. Whereby the Federal Reserve buys or sells government securities to influence the money supply and interest rates.

Key Takeaways

  • The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) is a Federal Reserve System’s(FRS’s) branch that directs the open market operations in the United States by changing the Federal funds rate to regulate the monetary policy.
  • FOMC is a 12 members committee comprising seven FRS Board of Governors members, including the President of the Federal Reserve Bank, New York. The other four members are the eleven regional Federal Reserve Banks presidents.
  • Moreover, this committee’s chair includes those on the FRS Board of Governors chair, while the New York Fed’s President holds the vice chair.

Federal Open Market Committee Explained

The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) refers to a branch of the Federal Reserve System (FRS) which governs the open market operations (OMO) in the United States. It was formed in 1933. Congress recognized it as the Federal Reserve System’s governing body under the Banking Act of 1935 within the United States. Eight Federal Open Market Committee meetings are held every six weeks a year. Hence, during these meetings, the economic conditions are assessed, and decisions regarding monetary policy are made.

Moreover, the members thoroughly examine economic data, forecasts, and financial market conditions to change federal funds rates to impact the interest rates and other policy measures. Besides, the outcomes of these meetings are communicated through press releases or conferences and Federal Open Market Committee policy statements. Furthermore, the federal open market committee policy statements provide insights into the committee’s views on economic conditions, inflation, employment, and its stance on interest rates.

The FOMC operates independently, although it is subject to governmental oversight. Thus, its decisions rely upon economic data and analysis rather than political considerations. Therefore, the decisions made by this committee have significant implications for the economy since they influence borrowing costs, employment, and inflation. Thus, the FOMC’s primary goal is to promote maximum engagement and stable prices, as mandated by Congress.

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The 12 members of the Federal Open Market Committee consist of:

  1. Seven individuals who are on the Board of Governors of the members Federal Reserve System, inclusive of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York’s President; and
  2. Four of the eleven regional Federal Reserve Banks’ presidents with one-year rotational term service. The rotating groups of regional Federal Banks, out of which one President is elected each, are as follows:
  1. Boston, Richmond, and Philadelphia;
  2. Cleveland and Chicago;
  3. St. Louis, Atlanta and Dallas, and
  4. Kansas City, Minneapolis, and San Francisco.

The FRS Board of Governors chair enacts the FOMC’s chair, while the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York holds the permanent position of vice chair of the FOMC. Even though not all Federal leaders can vote in all the Federal Open Market Committee meetings, they can still present their views and ideas.

Given below is a list of 2023 FOMC Members:

  • Jerome H. Powell, Board of Governors, Chair
  • John C. Williams, New York, Vice Chair
  • Michael S. Barr, Board of Governors
  • Michelle W. Bowman, Board of Governors
  • Lisa D. Cook, Board of Governors
  • Austan D. Goolsbee, Chicago
  • Patrick Harker, Philadelphia
  • Philip N. Jefferson, Board of Governors
  • Neel Kashkari, Minneapolis
  • Lorie K. Logan, Dallas
  • Christopher J. Waller, Board of Governors


The primary role of the FOMC is to establish and execute monetary policy in the United States. Here is a brief overview of the FOMC’s responsibilities:

  1. The FOMC determines the target federal funds rate and the depository institutions, such as banks’ interest rates, to lend and borrow reserves overnight. Changes in the federal funds rate influence short-term interest rates throughout the economy, affecting borrowing costs and, consequently, spending and investment decisions.
  2. To implement monetary policy, the FOMC instructs the Federal Reserve Bank, NY trading desk, to conduct open market operations. Therefore, this involves available market buying and selling of U.S. government securities to affect the money supply and interest rates.
    • Expansionary Policy: To stimulate the economy, the FOMC may purchase government securities, injecting money into the banking system and lowering interest rates.
    • Contractionary Policy: If the FOMC wants to curb inflationary pressures, it can sell government securities, curtailing the money supply and upsurging the interest rates.
  3. It helps to engage in regular economic analysis and forecasting to assess the financial condition and identify potential risks for making decisions on monetary policy adjustments.
  4. Furthermore, the committee communicates its decisions and reasoning through policy statements, meeting minutes, and press conferences. This transparency guides market participants and the public regarding the committee’s outlook and future policy actions.
  5. However, it monitors and addresses risks that could threaten the financial markets’ stability and functioning.
  6. Therefore, the FOMC monitors and guides the foreign exchange operations of the FRS. Moreover, it has lately approved the currency swap programs between FRS and foreign central banks.


The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) operates in cooperation with the U.S. central bank for the stability and effectiveness of the country’s monetary policies. Such a committee is essential for the following reasons:

  • Controls Monetary Policy: Its primary objective is to foster price stability, maximum employment, and moderate long-term interest rates. By adjusting the federal funds rate, the FOMC impacts borrowing costs, interest rates, and the economy’s credit conditions.
  • Economic Stability: Through its policy decisions, FOMC aims to balance economic growth and the need to prevent inflation or deflation. Therefore, by impacting money supply and interest rates, the committee endeavors to stabilize the economy, alleviate business cycles, and promote sustainable economic expansion.
  • Supports Financial Market Functioning: The FOMC’s transparency and communication regarding its decisions offer guidance to market participants, helping reduce uncertainty and supporting the smooth functioning of financial markets.
  • Create International Impact: The FOMC’s actions can influence capital flows, exchange rates, and financial conditions worldwide, given the size and influence of the U.S. economy on global economies. Consequently, international policymakers and market participants closely monitor FOMC decisions.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. When does the Federal open market committee buys government securities?

The FOMC purchases government securities from banks to decrease the federal funds rate by raising the money supply and expanding the banks’ reserves.

2. Do the federal open market committee minutes affect the market?

The FOMC minutes are the published gist of the FOMC meeting, including the discussions and decisions taken by the members. It is released three weeks post every session. It results in significant market fluctuations due to investors’ and traders’ sentiments and future market interpretations based on future interest rate changes.

3. How does the Federal open market committee determine the target federal funds rate?

The FOMC assesses various economic indicators, such as inflation, employment data, and GDP growth, to determine the appropriate federal funds rate level. It considers the current economic conditions, future outlook, and risks to make decisions.

This has been a guide to what is Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Here, we explain it with its roles, importance, and members. You can learn more about it from the following articles –

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