Nostro Account Meaning
Nostro Account is the account which a bank of a country holds in the bank of another country in the foreign currency and it helps the bank which is having the account in bank of another country by the way of simplifying the exchange and trading process for the foreign currencies.
In simple words, it refers to the foreign bank account established through the domestic bank in the respective country of the currency desired. For example, Bank X in India holds an account with the bank in Y in the USA in their home currency i.e, “ Dollars.” A bank generally opens a Nostro account in another bank in a foreign country where there is a large number of foreign exchange transactions periodically. These accounts are not opened in countries that are on the restricted list or where there is a minimal amount of foreign exchange transactions happening. Alternatively, for other banks, it will be considered as a Vostro account, i.e., your account in our books of accounts.
State Bank of India opens an account with bank of America in NewYork. It will be referred to as the Nostro account for the State Bank of India.
Suppose Bank A in the USA has to buy euros 1,00,000 from Bank B in the UK. On the settlement dateThe Settlement DateThe settlement date is the date on which the cash and assets that have been exchanged or traded are settled by netting out a process that happened a few days ago. Commonly for shares, it is two business days after the trade., bank b will transfer euros 1,00,000 to Nostro account of Bank A in the UK itself. However, a bank must pay dollars for the transactions. Hence Bank A will transfer the required amount in dollars to the Nostro account of bank b in the united states of America. Thus there is no exchange of money from one country to another; however, the transaction is executed smoothly.
Suppose an Individual Mr. A wants to remit $ 1,00,000 to another person, Mr.B, in the USA. In this case, Mr. A will approach his home bank and ask them to open a Nostro account in the correspondent bank in the USA. Now Mr. A will pay ~65,00,000 ( $1 = rs 65 ) to the domestic bank in the Nostro account of Mr. B, and the home bank will pay the corresponding bank in the USA $1,00,000 into its Vostro account. From that account, the correspondent bank will pay $1,00,000 to Mr. B’s personal Account. In this way, there is no movement of funds actually from once country to another. Still, the transactions go through, and both the parties are satisfied. MrB gets his money, and Mr. A pays off its obligations.
It is for the one who takes care of the entire financial frame word of the company or government. Below are some of the advantages :
- You can pay the money to a third party in your home currency without taking any exchange rate risk.
- Easy to operate since it is a mere transfer of funds from one account to another in the same bank.
- Enables to keep funds in foreign currency.
- Reduces the excessive fluctuation risk in exchange rates since money is directly emitted to the other party without physically been there.
Below are some of the disadvantages :
- A lesser rate of interest as compared to savings or current account.
- Generally more expensive since it is a facility provided by the home bank to execute foreign exchange transactions smoothly.
- Rigorous regulations and laws imposed for the operation of the Nostro account by the federal bank;
- Open to cyberattacks, which can have a huge impact on the cash reserves of the bank if hacked.
- The domestic banks are often used as custodians to manage the operations of the bank with regards to foreign exchange transactions.
- A bank recognizes the Nostro balance in the account as a debit balance with other banks and hence recorded as assets of the bank on the balance sheet.
- It is opened by the bank in those countries where the physical presence of the bank is marginal, and it would be difficult to communicate daily. To avoid this discomfort, a bank opens a Nostro account in another bank in a foreign country in foreign currency for flexibility and smooth operations.
- Since this is an additional and specialized facility provided by the banks to its customers, it comes with a cost that is very expensive and is allowed as business expenditure in the financial statementsFinancial StatementsFinancial statements are written reports prepared by a company's management to present the company's financial affairs over a given period (quarter, six monthly or yearly). These statements, which include the Balance Sheet, Income Statement, Cash Flows, and Shareholders Equity Statement, must be prepared in accordance with prescribed and standardized accounting standards to ensure uniformity in reporting at all levels. since the same has been used for executing business foreign exchange transactions.
Nostro Account is one of the most important and key facilities provided by the banks to the customers to carry out their foreign exchange transactions smoothly without difficulty. In modern times, Nostro and Vostro Accounts are the essential components of the financial system since they help in executing large foreign exchange transactions without having any physical presence in other countries.
It’s a specialized service brought in by the federal bank to promote international tradeInternational TradeThe trading or exchange of products and/or services across international borders is referred to as international trade. It frequently includes other risk factors such as exchange rate, government policies, economy, laws of the other nation, judicial system, and financial markets that impact trade between the two. and financial transactions to drive business growth in the future with ease in settlements and payment mechanisms. These accounts come along with certain rules and regulations, and the returns need to be filed with the statutory bodies as per the due dates mentioned.
This article has been a guide to what is a Nostro Account and its meaning. Here we discuss the examples of how the Nostro account works along with its features, advantages, and disadvantages. You can learn more about accounting from following articles –