Financial Statement Analysis
- Ratio Analysis of Financial Statements (Formula, Types, Excel)
- Ratio Analysis
- Liquidity Ratios
- Turnover Ratios
- Profitability Ratios
- Profit Margin
- Gross Profit Margin Formula
- Operating Profit Margin Formula
- Net Profit Margin Formula
- EBIDTA Margin
- Earnings Per Share
- Basic EPS
- Diluted EPS
- Basic EPS vs Diluted EPS
- Return on Equity (ROE)
- Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)
- Return on Invested Capital (ROIC)
- Return on Total Assets (ROA)
- Return on Average Capital Employed
- Capital employed Employed
- Return on Average Assets (ROAA)
- Return on Average Equity (ROAE)
- Return on Assets Formula
- Return on Equity Formula
- DuPont Formula
- Net Interest Margin Formula
- Earnings Per Share Formula
- Diluted EPS Formula
- Contribution Margin Formula
- Revenue Per Employee Ratio
- Operating Leverage
- EBIT vs EBITDA
- Capital Gains Yield
- Tax Equivalent Yield
- LTM Revenue
- Operating Expense Ratio Formula
- Overhead Ratio Formula
- Capacity Utilization Rate Formula
- Total Expense Ratio Formula
- Efficiency Ratios
- Dividend Ratios
- Debt Ratios
- Debt to Equity Ratio
- Debt Coverage Ratio
- Debt Ratio
- Debt to Income Ratio Formula (DTI)
- Capital Gearing Ratio
- Capitalization Ratio
- Interest Coverage Ratio
- Times Interest Earned Ratio
- Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR)
- Financial Leverage Ratio
- Net Debt Formula
- Leverage Ratios
- Operating Leverage vs Financial Leverage
- Current Yield
- Debt Yield Ratio
Quick Ratio Formula
Quick Ratio Formula or Acid Test Ratio is one of the most important Liquidity Ratios for determining the company’s ability to pay off its current liabilities in the short term.
It goes by the formula of Quick Ratio.
In case company is not giving breakup of Quick Assets, then:
Quick Ratio Example
Masters Co. Ltd has following details:
- Cash = $200,000
- Advance = $30,000
- Marketable Securities = $60,000
- Account Receivables = $40,000
- Inventories = $80,000
Total Current Assets = $410,000
- Account Payable = $260,000,
- Accrual Expenses = $30,000,
- Short-term Debt = $90,000,
- Interest Payable = $60,000.
Total Current Liabilities = $440,000.
Previous years acid test ratio was 1.4 and the industry average is 1.7
Calculation of acid test ratio :
Acid test ratio formula = (Cash + Short-term marketable securities + A/c’s Receivable) / Current Liabilities
= ($200,000 + $60,000 + $40,000) / ($440,000)
= ($300,000) / ($440,000)
Explanation of Quick Ratio Formula
The Quick Ratio formula is a more stringent measure of short-term liquidity as compared to Current Ratio. Quick Assets are the ones which can be converted to cash in short term or in a period of 90 days. The important difference between Current Ratio formula and Acid Test Ratio formula is that we are excluding Inventory & Prepaid Expenses as a part of Current Assets in Quick Ratio formula.
Inventory is excluded because it is assumed that the stock held by the company may not be realized immediately. The inventory could be in the form of Raw materials or W-I-P. Such a situation will make the process of liquidating the inventory all the more tricky and time-consuming.
An acid test ratio of 1 or more indicates that the company can pay off its current liabilities with the help of Quick Assets, and without needing to sale off its long term assets and has sound financial health. Care must be exercised in placing too much reliance on acid test ratio without further investigating; For e.g.: Seasonal businesses, which seek to stabilize production, might have a weak Quick ratio formula during its period of slack sales, but a higher one in case of its peak business season. Such situations may prove tricky to know the actual financial position of the company.
Use of Quick Ratio Formula
- Keeping track of Quick ratio formula helps the management to determine whether they are maintaining optimum levels of Quick assets so as to take care of its short term liabilities in their balance sheets.
- Quick Ratio formula showcases a well-functioning short term financial cycle of a company.
- This improves the credibility of the company with the investors by gaining and maintaining their trust in the value of their investments.
- Also the creditors of the company know that their payments will be made on time.
Microsoft Acid Test Ratio Example
Let’s now look at the example of Microsoft acid test ratio .
As noted from the below graph, Cash Ratio of Microsoft is a low 0.110x, however, its acid test ratio is a massive 2.216x.
Microsoft acid test ratio is pretty high primarily due to short-term investments of around $106.73 billion! This puts Microsoft in a very comfortable position from the point of view of liquidity / Solvency.
source: Microsoft SEC Filings
Interpretation of Acid Test Ratio
- As per previous year, the company had a acid test ratio of 1.4, whereas this time it amounts to 0.68.
- From this, we can figure out that the company has not maintained enough Quick assets to pay off its current liabilities. It shows that the company will face potential liquidity problems.
- It might have to sell off its long-term assets to pay off its liabilities if needed, which is not a sign of a healthy and well-managed balance sheet.
- The company should maintain the an acid test ratio to at least 1, which is considered ideal and satisfactory.
Quick Ratio Calculator
You can use the following Quick Ratio Calculator
|Quick Ratio =||
Quick Ratio in Excel (with excel template)
Let us now do the same Quick Ratio example above in Excel.
This is very simple. You need to provide the two inputs of Total Current Assets and Total Current Liabilities.
You can easily calculate the ratio in the template provided.
Calculation of acid test ratio
Acid test ratio = (Cash + Short-term marketable securities + A/c’s Receivable) / Current Liabilities
You can download this Quick ratio template here – Quick Ratio Excel template
This has been a guide to Quick Ratio Formula, practical Quick Ratio Example, and Quick Ratio calculator along with excel templates. You may also have a look at these articles below to learn more about Financial Analysis –