Financial Statement Analysis

- Ratio Analysis of Financial Statements (Formula, Types, Excel)
- Ratio Analysis Advantages
- Ratio Analysis
- Liquidity Ratios
- Cash Ratio
- Cash Ratio Formula
- Quick Ratio
- Quick Ratio Formula
- Current Ratio
- Current Ratio Formula
- Acid Test Ratio Formula
- Defensive Interval Ratio
- Working Capital Ratio
- Working Capital Formula
- Net Working Capital Formula
- Changes in Net Working Capital
- Change in Net Working Capital (NWC) Formula
- Cash Flow from Operations Ratio
- Cash Flow Per Share
- Cash Reserve Ratio
- Operating Cycle Formula
- Current Ratio vs Quick Ratio
- Bid Ask Spread
- Liquidity vs Solvency
- Liquidity
- Solvency
- Solvency Ratios
- Equity Ratio
- Capital Adequacy Ratio
- Liquidity Risk
- Altman Z Score

- Turnover Ratios
- Inventory Turnover Ratio
- Accounts Receivable Turnover
- Accounts Receivables Turnover Ratio
- Accounts Payable Turnover Ratio
- Days Inventory Outstanding
- Days in Inventory
- Days Sales Outstanding
- Days Sales Uncollected
- Average Collection Period
- Days Payable Outstanding
- Cash Conversion Cycle
- Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC) Formula
- Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio Formula
- Debtor Days Formula
- Working Capital Turnover Ratio

- Profitability Ratios
- Profitability Ratios Formula
- Common Size Income Statement
- Vertical Analysis of Income Statement
- Profit Margin
- Gross Profit Margin Formula
- Gross Profit Percentage
- Operating Profit Margin Formula
- EBIT Margin Formula
- Operating Income Formula
- Net Profit Margin Formula
- EBIDTA Margin
- Degree of Operating Leverage Formula (DOL)
- NOPAT Formula
- OIBDA
- Earnings Per Share
- Basic EPS
- Diluted EPS
- Basic EPS vs Diluted EPS
- Return on Equity (ROE)
- Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)
- Return on Invested Capital (ROIC)
- Return on Sales
- ROIC Formula (Return on Invested Capital)
- Return on Investment Formula (ROI)
- ROIC vs ROCE
- ROE vs ROA
- CFROI
- Cash on Cash Return
- Return on Total Assets (ROA)
- Return on Average Capital Employed
- Capital employed Employed
- Return on Average Assets (ROAA)
- Return on Average Equity (ROAE)
- Return on Assets Formula
- Return on Equity Formula
- DuPont Formula
- Net Interest Margin Formula
- Earnings Per Share Formula
- Diluted EPS Formula
- Contribution Margin Formula
- Unit Contribution Margin
- Revenue Per Employee Ratio
- Operating Leverage
- EBIT vs EBITDA
- EBITDAR
- Capital Gains Yield
- Tax Equivalent Yield
- LTM Revenue
- Operating Expense Ratio Formula
- Overhead Ratio Formula
- Variable Costing Formula
- Capitalization Rate
- Cap Rate Formula
- Comparative Income Statement
- Capacity Utilization Rate Formula
- Total Expense Ratio Formula
- Markup Percentage Formula

- Efficiency Ratios
- Dividend Ratios
- Debt Ratios
- Debt to Equity Ratio
- Debt Coverage Ratio
- Debt Ratio
- Debt to Asset Ratio Formula
- Coverage Ratio
- Coverage Ratio Formula
- Debt to Income Ratio Formula (DTI)
- Capital Gearing Ratio
- Capitalization Ratio
- Overcapitalization
- Interest Coverage Ratio
- Times Interest Earned Ratio
- Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR)
- DSCR Formula (Debt service coverage ratio)
- Financial Leverage Ratio
- Financial Leverage Formula
- Degree of Financial Leverage Formula
- Net Debt Formula
- Leverage Ratios
- Leverage Ratios Formula
- Operating Leverage vs Financial Leverage
- Current Yield
- Debt Yield Ratio
- Solvency Ratio Formula

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## What is the Altman Z Score?

Altman Z score is a type of Z score, which was published by Edward I. Altman in 1968 as a Z score formula, used to predict the chances of bankruptcy. This methodology can be used to predict the chance of a business organization to move into bankruptcy within a given time, which is mostly about 2 years.

This method is successful in predicting the status of financial distress in any firm. Altman Z score can help in measuring the financial health of a business organization by the use of multiple balance sheet values and corporate income.

### Altman Z Score Formula

Below is the Formula of Alman Z Score. It is basically designed for publicly held manufacturing firms with values of more than $ 1 million of net worth.

The 5 financial ratios used in the calculation of this Altman Z score formula are as follows:

Financial ratio used |
Formula for the financial ratio |

A | Working capital / total assets |

B | Retained earnings / total assets |

C | Earnings before interest and task payment /total assets |

D | The equity’s market value / total assets |

E | Total sales / total assets |

The Altman Z Score formula for this model for determining the probability that a firm to close bankruptcy is:

**Altman Z Score formula = (1.2 x A) + (1.4 x B) + (3.3 x C) + (0.6 x D) + (0.999 x E)**

4.9 (1,067 ratings)

- In this model, if the Z value is greater than 2.99, then the firm is said to be in the “safe zone” and has a negligible probability of filing bankruptcy.
- If the Z value is between 2.99 and 1.81, then the firm is said to be in the “grey zone” and has a moderate probability for bankruptcy.
- And finally, if the Z value is below 1.81, then it is said to be in the “distress zone” and has a very high probability of reaching the stage of bankruptcy.

### Application of Altman Z Score in predicting bankruptcy

- The value of the Altman Z score is generally around – 0.25 for firms that have the highest probability of going bankrupt. On the other hand, for firms having the least probability of facing a bankruptcy, the value of Altman Z score value is as high as + 4.48.
- The Altman Z score formula is helpful for investors to determine if they should consider buying a stock or sell some of the stocks they have. Generally, the Altman Z score below 1.8 denotes that the firm is under the chance of getting into bankruptcy. On the other hand, the firms with Altman Z score above 3 are deemed to be less likely to go bankrupt. So an investor can decide to buy a stock if the Altman Z score is closer to value 3 and similarly they can decide to sell a stock if the value is closer to 1.8.
- In 2007, the specific asset-related securities had been given higher credit ratings than they must have been. However, the companies were correctly predicted to be increasing their financial risk and should have been heading for bankruptcy. Altman calculated that the median Altman Z score of firms in 2007 was 1.81. These companies’ credit ratings were the same as that of the financial ratio B, which is used in the formula of Z above. This indicated that almost half of the companies are being rated lower, and they were extremely distressed and had a high likelihood of reaching a stage of bankruptcy.
- Therefore, Altman’s Z Score calculations led him to believe that a crisis would occur and there would be a meltdown in the credit market. Altman believed that the crisis would stem from company defaults. However, the meltdown began with mortgage-backed securities (MBS). Still, firms shortly defaulted in 2009 at the second-highest rate in history, as predicted by Altman’s model.

### Altman Z score for private firms:

The original Altman Z score formula is modified to fit in case of private firms and the business ratios used in case of this are:

Financial ratio used |
Formula for the financial ratio |

A | ( Current Assets − Current Liabilities )/Total Assets |

B | Retained Earnings/Total Assets |

C | Earnings Before Interest and Taxes/Total Assets |

D | Book Value of Equity/Total Liabilities |

E | Sales/Total Assets |

The actual Altman Z Score formula for this model for determining the probability for a firm to close bankruptcy is:

Z’ = (0.717 x A) + (0.847 x B) + (3.107 x C) + (0.420 x D) + (0.998 x E)

- In this model, if the Z value is greater than 2.99, then the firm is said to be in the “safe zone” and has a negligible probability of filing bankruptcy.
- If the Z value is between 2.99 and 1.23, then the firm is said to be in the “grey zone” and has a moderate chance of bankruptcy.
- And finally, if the Z value is below 1.23, then it is said to be in “distress zone” and has a very high probability of reaching the stage of bankruptcy.

### Altman Z score for non-manufacturing firms (Developed and emerging Markets)

The original Altman Z score formula is slightly modified to be used in case of firms that are non-manufacturing and operating in the emerging markets. We use only four financial ratios in this model. The four ratios are as follows:

Business ratios used |
Formula for the business ratio |

A | ( Current Assets − Current Liabilities ) / Total Assets |

B | Retained Earnings / Total Assets |

C | Earnings Before Interest and Taxes / Total Assets |

D | Book Value of Equity / Total Liabilities |

The actual Altman Z Score formula for this model for determining the probability for a non-manufacturing firm, operating in developed markets, to file a bankruptcy is as follows:

Z’’ = (6.56 x A) + (3.26 x B) + (6.72 x C) + (1.05 x D)

The actual formula Altman Z Score formula for this model for determining the probability for a non-manufacturing firm, operating in emerging markets, to file a bankruptcy is as follows:

Z’’ = 3.25 + (6.56 x A) + (3.26 x B) + (6.72 x C) + (1.05 x D)

- In this model, if the Z value is greater than 2.6, then the firm is said to be in the “safe zone” and has a negligible probability of filing a bankruptcy.
- If the Z value is between 2.6 and 1.1, then the firm is said to be in the “grey zone” and has a moderate chance of bankruptcy.
- If the Z value is below 1.1, then it is said to be in the “distress zone” and has a very high probability of reaching the stage of bankruptcy.

### Conclusion

The Alman Z-Score is a widely used metric with wide applications. It is one of the several credit marking models already in use that combine quantifiable financial indicators with a small range of variables which will help us to predict whether or not a firm will financially fail or go into a bankruptcy stage.

However, over the years since its introduction, the Z-Score has been improved to become one among the reliable predictors of bankruptcy and many analysts nowadays use this method above any other because of its wide applications. In fact, once Altman reevaluated his strategies by examining eighty-six distressed firms from 1969 to 1975 and then 110 bankrupt firms from 1976 to 1995 and later 120 bankrupt firms from 1996 to 1999. The Z-Score had an accuracy level of between 82% – 94%, which was more than that achieved by any of the methodologies that existed.

However, the “garbage in, garbage out” motto applies here as well. Therefore, if a firm’s financials, or the input data, are misleading or incorrect, the Z-Score will go wrong and will not be helpful at all in our analysis and prediction of bankruptcy.

### Altman Z Score Video

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This has been a guide to Altman Z Score and how it predicts bankruptcy. Here we see the Altman Z Score Formula for manufacturing and private companies & nonmanufacturing companies in developed and emerging markets. You may learn more about Investment Banking from the following articles –