## Beneish M-Score Definition

Beneish M-Score is a mathematical model created by Professor Messod Beneish that uses financial ratios calculated from the company’s financial statements to judge the possibility of earnings manipulation. The eight variables required for calculating the M-Score are calculated using the data from the income statement, balance sheet and cash flows of the company and then M-Score is calculated to know the degree of manipulation in earnings by the company.

- If Beneish M-score is less than the -2.22 then it suggests that the company under consideration is not a manipulator
- If Beneish M-score is more than the -2.22 then it provides the signal that the company can be the manipulator

### Components of Beneish M-Score

The Beneish M score is calculated on the basis of the combination of eight different types of indices which are as follows:

**#1. Days’ Sales in Receivables Index (DSRI) **

It is the ratio of days sales in receivables in a year with respect to the previous year. The large increase in the value of DSR is an indicator of revenue inflation.

_{t}/ Sales

_{t}) / Net Receivables

_{ t-1}/ Sales

_{ t-1})

**#2. Gross Margin Index (GMI)**

It is the ratio of gross margin of a year with respect to the previous year.

_{ t-1}– COGS

_{ t-1}) / Sales

_{ t-1}] / [(Sales

_{t}– COGS

_{t}) / Sales

_{t}]

**#3. Asset Quality Index (AQI)**

It is the ratio of non-current assets (other than the plant, property and the equipment) to total assets of a year versus the prior year.

_{t}+ PP&E

_{t}+ Securities

_{t}) / Total Assets

_{t}] / [1 – ((Current Assets

_{ t-1}+ PP&E

_{ t-1}+ Securities

_{ t-1}) / Total Assets

_{ t-1})]

**#4. Sales Growth Index (SGI)**

It is the ratio of sales of a year with respect to the previous year.

4.9 (1,067 ratings)

_{t}/ Sales

_{t-1}

**#5. Depreciation Index (DEPI)**

It is the ratio of the rate of depreciation of a year with respect to the previous year.

_{ t-1}/ (PP&E

_{ t-1}+ Depreciation

_{ t-1})) / (Depreciation

_{ t}/ (PP&E

_{ t}+ Depreciation

_{ t}))

**#6. Sales, General, and Administrative expenses Index (SGAI)**

It is the ratio of SG&A expenses of a year with respect to the previous year.

_{ t}/ Sales

_{ t}) / (SG&A Expense

_{ t-1}/ Sales

_{ t-1})

**#7. Leverage Index (LVGI)**

It is the ratio of total debt to total assets of a year with respect to the previous year.

_{ t}+ Total Long Term Debt

_{ t}) / Total Assets

_{ t}] / [(Current Liabilities

_{ t-1}+ Total Long Term Debt

_{ t-1}) / Total Assets

_{ t-1}]

**#8. Total Accruals to Total Assets (TATA)**

It is calculated as the change in the accounts of working capital other than the cashless depreciation

_{ t}– Cash Flows from the Operations

_{ t}) / Total Assets

_{ t}

### Beneish M Score Formula

Eight different types of indices are weighted together as per the following formula to derive at the M-score:

**Beneish M Score Formula = -4.84 + 0.92 * DSRI + 0.528 * GMI + 0.404 * AQI + 0.892 * SGI + 0.115 * DEPI – 0.172 * SGAI + 4.679 * TATA – 0.327 * LVGI**

### Calculation of Beneish M-Score (with Examples)

The following are the different Beneish ratios. Calculate the M-score.

- DSRI : 0.814
- GMI : 1.556
- AQI : 0.608
- SGI : 0.755
- DEPI : 0.801
- SGAI : 1.110
- LVGI : 0.878
- TATA : 0.044

#### Calculation of M-Score

M-score= -4.84 + 0.92 * DSRI + 0.528 * GMI + 0.404 * AQI + 0.892 * SGI + 0.115 * DEPI – 0.172 * SGAI + 4.679 * TATA – 0.327 * LVGI

M-score= -4.84 + 0.749 + 0.822 + 0.246 + 0.673 + 0.092 – 0.191 + 0.206 – 0.287

M-score= **-2.530**

In this case, since the M-score is -2.53, which is more than -2.22 t is probable that the company is a manipulator and thus analysts should be cautious about the same.

### Advantages of the Beneish M-Score

- It is helpful in knowing that up-to what extent the management of the company are manipulating its earnings as it calculates the degree of manipulation in earnings by the company
- It helps the analysts in detecting the financial accounting frauds in the company.

### Disadvantages of the Beneish M-Score

- It is the probabilistic model that only gives the user the probability of manipulation and cannot detect the companies that manipulate financial statements.
- The model does not apply to the financial firms as Professor Messod Beneish at the time of estimating the model did not include these firms.
- In case the management of the company has an idea about the calculation of the Beneish M-score model, then they would manipulate the balance sheet entries which are considered for the calculation of M-Score. So, the purpose of M- score in that case will remain unfulfilled.

### Important Points

- M-Score has two versions i.e., 8 variable models and 5 variable models. The most widely used out of two versions is 8 variable Beneish’s models.
- Being the probabilistic model the manipulation cannot be detected with the 100 5 accuracies.

### Conclusion

M-Score is calculated to know the degree of manipulation in earnings by the company. Many of the companies can use different means of increasing their reported earnings like capitalization of the expenses which are of revenue nature, early booking of the sales in the books of accounts, etc. These tricks although are not illegal by the law but the same signifies the wrong working of the company. The Beneish M-Score model helps analysts in predicting these high profile failures.

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