Ending Inventory Formula

Formula to Calculate Ending Inventory

Ending Inventory formula calculates the value of goods available for sale at the end of the accounting period. Usually, it is recorded on the balance sheet at the lower of cost or its market value.

Ending Inventory = Beginning Inventory + Purchases -Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)

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Source: Ending Inventory Formula (wallstreetmojo.com)

It also Known as Closing StockKnown As Closing StockClosing stock or inventory is the amount that a company still has on its hand at the end of a financial period. It may include products getting processed or are produced but not sold. Raw materials, work in progress, and final goods are all included on a broad level.read more and normally comprises three types of InventoryTypes Of InventoryDirect material inventory, work in progress inventory, and finished goods inventory are the three types of inventories. The raw material is direct material inventory, work in progress inventory is partially completed inventory, and finished goods inventory is stock that has completed all stages of production.read more namely:

  • Raw Materials
  • Work in Process (WIP)
  • Finished Goods

3 Methods to Calculate the Ending Inventory

Firm’s value Ending Inventory calculation based on any of the three methods mentioned below:

#1 – FIFO (First in First Out Method)

Under FIFO Inventory MethodFIFO Inventory MethodUnder the FIFO method of accounting inventory valuation, the goods that are purchased first are the first to be removed from the inventory account. As a result, leftover inventory at books is valued at the most recent price paid for the most recent stock of inventory. As a result, the inventory asset on the balance sheet is recorded at the most recent cost.read more, the first item purchased is the first item sold which means that the cost of purchase of the first item is the cost of the first item sold which results in closing Inventory reported by the business on its Balance sheet showing the approximate current cost as its value is based on the most recent purchase. Thus in an Inflationary environment i.e., when prices are rising, the Ending Inventory will be higher using this method compared to the other methods.

#2 – LIFO (Last in First Out Method)

Under Last In First Out Inventory MethodLast In First Out Inventory MethodLIFO (Last In First Out) is one accounting method for inventory valuation on the balance sheet. LIFO accounting means inventory acquired at last would be used up or sold first.read more, the last item purchased is the cost of the first item sold, which results in the closing Inventory reported by the Business on its Balance Sheet depicts the cost of the earliest items purchased. Ending Inventory is valued on the Balance SheetThe Balance SheetA balance sheet is one of the financial statements of a company that presents the shareholders' equity, liabilities, and assets of the company at a specific point in time. It is based on the accounting equation that states that the sum of the total liabilities and the owner's capital equals the total assets of the company.read more using the earlier costs, and in an inflationary environment LIFO ending Inventory is less than the current cost. Thus in an Inflationary environment i.e., when prices are rising, it will be lower.

#3 – Weighted Average Cost Method

Under this, the average cost per unitCost Per UnitCost per unit is defined as the amount of money spent by a corporation over a period of time to produce a single unit of a specific product or service, and it takes into account two components in its calculation: variable and fixed costs. It aids in determining the selling price of the company's product or services.read more is computed by dividing the total cost of goods available for sale. Ending Inventory is valued by multiplying the average cost per unit by the number of units available at the end of the reporting periodReporting PeriodA reporting period is a month, quarter, or year during which an organization's financial statements are prepared for external use uniformly across a period of time in order for the general public and users to interpret and evaluate the financial statements.read more.

Examples (with Excel Template)

You can download this Ending Inventory Formula Excel Template here – Ending Inventory Formula Excel Template

Example #1

ABC Limited started the production with an opening Inventory worth $100000. During the month of January, ABC Limited purchased Inventory amounting to $50000 on 16th January and $30000 on 25th January. On 29th January, ABC Limited sold products amounting to $ 120000. Calculate the Ending Inventory for the same.

Ending inventory Example1.1

So, it will be –

Ending inventory Example1.2

Example #2

XYZ Limited has furnished the Inventory data for the month of March 2018. Do the ending inventory Calculation under the LIFO, FIFO, and Weighted Average Cost Method.

Inventory Data – 

inventory data

By using the above-given data, do the calculation using all three methods.

Using FIFO Ending Inventory Formula

Since the first purchased units are sold first, the value of the 7 units sold at the unit cost of the first units purchases and the balance 3 units which is the ending Inventory cost is as follows:

  • = 3 units @ $5 per unit= $15

Using LIFO Ending Inventory Formula

Since the last purchased units are sold first, the value of the 7 units sold at the unit cost of the last units purchases and the balance 3 units which is the ending Inventory cost is as follows:

= 2 units @ $2 per unit + 1 units @ $3 per unit = $7

Using Weighted Average Cost Ending Inventory Formula

Since the units are valued at the average cost, the value of the 7 units sold at the average unit cost of goods available and the balance 3 units which are the ending Inventory cost is as follows:

  • Average Cost per unit= ($38/10) = $3.80 per unit
  • = 3 units @ $3.80 per unit= $11.40



Thus we can see the value of the Inventory is affected to a large extent by the method of valuation, that the business in question adopts.


You can use the following calculator.

Beginning Inventory
Costs of Goods Sold(COGS)
Ending Inventory Formula =

Ending Inventory Formula = Beginning Inventory + Purchases - Costs of Goods Sold(COGS)
0 + 0 - 0 = 0

Final Thoughts

Ending Inventory is the value of goods or products that remain unsold, or we can say that remains at the end of the reporting period (Accounting periodAccounting PeriodAccounting Period refers to the period in which all financial transactions are recorded and financial statements are prepared. This might be quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, depending on the period for which you want to create the financial statements to be presented to investors so that they can track and compare the company's overall performance.read more or financial period). It is always based on the market value or cost of the goods, whichever is lower. It makes sense to keep track of the Inventory as the same is carried forward to the next reporting period (Accounting or Financial) and becomes the Beginning Inventory, and any inaccurate measure of Ending Inventory will result in financial implication in the new reporting period as well.

Also, the valuation of Inventory has a widespread impact on the various line items on the Income Statement (namely, Cost of goods sold, Net Profit and Gross Profit) and Balance Sheet (namely, Current AssetsCurrent AssetsCurrent assets refer to those short-term assets which can be efficiently utilized for business operations, sold for immediate cash or liquidated within a year. It comprises inventory, cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, etc.read more, Working Capital, Total Assets, etc.) which will ultimately impact the various important financial ratios (namely, Current Ratio, Quick Ratio, Inventory Turnover RatioInventory Turnover RatioInventory Turnover Ratio is a measure to determine the efficiency of a Company concerning its overall inventory management. To calculate the ratio, divide the cost of goods sold by the gross inventory. read more, Gross Profit Ratio, and Net Profit Ratio to name a few).

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Ending Inventory Formula. Here we learn how to calculate the Ending Inventory using FIFO, LIFO, and Weighted Average Cost Method along with practical examples. You can learn more about Accounting from the following articles –

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