Public Liability Insurance

Updated on February 23, 2024
Article byKumar Rahul
Edited byAshish Kumar Srivastav
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

Public Liability Insurance Meaning

Public liability insurance is a financial safeguard that protects individuals and businesses from the financial repercussions of third-party claims for injury or property damage. The primary aim of public liability insurance is to mitigate the potential financial burden arising from legal liabilities.

Public Liability Insurance

You are free to use this image on your website, templates, etc, Please provide us with an attribution linkHow to Provide Attribution?Article Link to be Hyperlinked
For eg:
Source: Public Liability Insurance (wallstreetmojo.com)

The key objectives of public liability insurance include risk management and financial stability. By transferring the financial risk associated with it, businesses can protect their assets and maintain operational continuity. This type of insurance also helps in preventing severe financial setbacks. That could result from legal actions, fostering a more secure financial environment for businesses and individuals alike.

Key Takeaways

  • Public Liability Insurance (PLI) provides financial protection to individuals and businesses against claims for bodily injury or property damage made by third parties.
  • PLI covers legal expenses, compensation payments, and related costs arising from incidents where a third party claims injury or damage due to the insured’s actions or negligence.
  • Businesses interacting with the public, operating in shared spaces, or providing products/services that could cause harm may benefit from PLI.
  • While PLI is typically not legally mandatory, it’s a requirement in contracts, leases, or event organizers. This is to protect businesses and the public from potential liabilities.

Public Liability Insurance Explained

Public liability insurance is a financial contract that shields individuals and businesses from the potential fiscal fallout stemming from claims by third parties for bodily injury or property damage. Its primary objective is to provide a protective financial cushion. It covers legal expenses and compensation payments incurred when a third party alleges injury or property harm due to the policyholder‘s actions or negligence.

Originating in the mid-19th century, public liability insurance has its roots in the evolving dynamics of business and interpersonal interactions. As commerce and industry expanded, so did the potential for accidents and disputes. In response to emerging challenges, the concept of insurance began to take shape. Early policies were designed with the specific aim of shielding businesses from the financial consequences of legal liabilities.

As time progressed, this insurance concept underwent a transformative evolution, turning into a standard tool for risk management. Today, public liability insurance holds a pivotal position in the financial strategies employed by both businesses and individuals. Offering a crucial layer of protection against unforeseen events and potential legal claims. It offers a layer of financial protection against unforeseen events and legal claims.


The coverage can be summarized in critical points:

  1. Bodily Injury and Property Damage: Public liability insurance covers the financial costs associated with bodily injury or property damage.
  2. Legal Expenses: The policy covers legal defense costs in the event of a lawsuit. Including attorney fees, court costs, and other legal expenses incurred to defend against a liability claim.
  3. Compensation Payments: The policy provides coverage for compensation payments to the injured party. It helps to alleviate the financial burden on the policyholder.
  4. Accidents on Premises: Coverage extends to accidents that occur on the insured’s premises, like slips and falls.
  5. Products and Operations: Public liability insurance often includes coverage for liabilities arising from the insured’s products or business operations.
  6. Completed Operations: Some policies may cover liabilities arising from operations.
  7. Advertising Liability: Coverage may extend to advertising-related liabilities, such as claims of libel, slander, or copyright infringement in the insured’s advertisements.


The critical exclusion points of it are:

  1. Intentional Acts: Deliberate or intentional actions causing harm or damage are typically excluded from coverage.
  2. Contractual Liabilities: Liabilities assumed under a contract, unless explicitly covered, may be excluded.
  3. Illegal Activities: Claims arising from illegal activities or violations of the law are often excluded.
  4. Professional Errors or Omissions: Financial losses resulting from professional mistakes or negligence may be excluded, requiring a separate professional liability policy.
  5. Property Damage or Injuries to Employees: Damages to the insured’s property or injuries to employees are usually excluded, as they fall under other insurance categories.
  6. Pollution and Environmental Damage: Liability related to pollution or environmental damage may be excluded or limited in coverage.
  7. Product Recall Costs: Expenses associated with product recalls are often excluded, necessitating additional coverage.
  8. War and Terrorism: Damages resulting from war, terrorism, or related activities may be excluded.


Let us understand it better with some examples.

Example #1

Suppose a local bakery owner whose artisanal shop is a neighborhood favorite. A customer slips on a freshly mopped floor, resulting in a minor injury and a potential liability claim. Public liability insurance steps in to cover the injured customer’s medical expenses and legal fees if a lawsuit ensues.

This financial protection ensures that the bakery owner doesn’t bear the brunt of unforeseen costs, safeguarding assets and allowing for operational continuity. In this imaginary scenario, public liability insurance proves invaluable, exemplifying its role in shielding businesses from the financial fallout of third-party injury claims and enabling them to navigate potential legal challenges with confidence.

Example #2

A 2023 report from the Moneylife Foundation is pushing for mandatory public liability insurance in India for all public spaces. The report emphasizes the need for financial protection in the event of accidents or mishaps in areas accessible to the public. The call for mandatory coverage aims to mitigate the potential financial burden on businesses and entities operating public spaces, ensuring they can handle liability claims effectively.

Moneylife Foundation highlights the importance of such insurance in safeguarding businesses, enhancing public safety, and promoting responsible risk management. The report encourages regulatory measures to make public liability insurance compulsory, emphasizing its role in protecting both businesses and the public from the economic consequences of unforeseen incidents in shared spaces.

How To Claim?

Here is a step-by-step guide on how to claim public liability insurance:

  1. Notify the Insurer: Inform the insurance company promptly about the incident that led to the claim. Provide details such as the date, time, and location, along with a description of the event.
  2. Document the Incident: Gather evidence supporting the claim, including photographs, witness statements, and any relevant documentation, such as incident reports or medical records.
  3. File a Police Report: If the incident involves criminal activity, such as theft or vandalism, file a police report and provide a copy to the insurance company.
  4. Complete Claim Forms: Fill out the necessary claim forms provided by the insurer. Include all relevant details about the incident, the parties involved, and the extent of the damages or injuries.
  5. Provide Financial Documentation: Submit any financial documentation requested by the insurer, such as receipts, invoices, or estimates for repairs or medical expenses.
  6. Cooperate with the Investigation: Cooperate fully with the insurer’s investigation, providing any additional information or clarification as needed.
  7. Review the Settlement Offer: Once the insurer evaluates the claim, review the settlement offer. Negotiate if necessary and ensure that the financial compensation aligns with the incurred losses.
  8. Receive Payment: Upon agreement, the insurer will release the payment to cover the financial losses or liabilities outlined in the claim.


The critical benefits outlined are:

  1. Financial Security: Provides a financial safety net by covering legal expenses, compensation payments, and related costs, shielding individuals and businesses from the potentially significant financial impact of third-party liability claims.
  2. Risk Management: Facilitates effective risk management by transferring the financial burden of legal liabilities to the insurance provider, allowing businesses to allocate resources strategically and minimize the impact of unforeseen events.
  3. Operational Continuity: Helps maintain operational continuity by preventing severe financial setbacks that could arise from legal actions, ensuring that businesses can continue their activities without significant disruptions.
  4. Asset Protection: Safeguards assets by covering potential liabilities and protecting businesses and individuals from the risk of losing valuable assets in the event of legal claims.
  5. Legal Defense Coverage: Includes coverage for legal defense costs, covering expenses associated with hiring lawyers and defending against third-party claims in court.
  6. Enhanced Business Credibility: Contributes to enhanced business credibility by demonstrating financial responsibility and preparedness to handle unforeseen liabilities, potentially boosting the confidence of clients, partners, and investors.
Financial Modeling & Valuation Courses Bundle (25+ Hours Video Series)

–>> If you want to learn Financial Modeling & Valuation professionally , then do check this ​Financial Modeling & Valuation Course Bundle​ (25+ hours of video tutorials with step by step McDonald’s Financial Model). Unlock the art of financial modeling and valuation with a comprehensive course covering McDonald’s forecast methodologies, advanced valuation techniques, and financial statements.

Public Liability Insurance vs Professional Indemnity Insurance

Some of the differences between the two are as follows:

AspectPublic Liability InsuranceProfessional Indemnity Insurance
Scope of CoverageCovers third-party claims for injury or property damage due to the insured’s actions or negligence.Covers claims arising from professional services, including errors, omissions, or negligent advice.
Type of RiskFocuses on general liabilities that may occur in the course of business operations, such as slips and falls or property damage.It targets risks specific to professional services, addressing potential financial losses resulting from mistakes or inadequate advice.
Examples of CoverageAccidents on business premises, product-related injuries, or damages caused by business operations.Professional errors, negligence, breaches of duty, or failure to meet professional standards.
Financial ProtectionShields against legal expenses, compensation payments, and related costs for third-party claims.Provides coverage for legal defense costs, settlements, and damages arising from professional liabilities.
Industry ApplicabilityRelevant to a broad range of industries and businesses engaging with the public.Primarily applicable to professionals offering specialized services, such as consultants, doctors, or architects.
Mandatory RequirementsMay be required for businesses to operate legally, especially in industries with potential public risks.Often mandated or strongly recommended for professionals to comply with industry regulations and standards.

The key differences between the three concepts are:

AspectPublic Liability InsuranceLegal Liability InsuranceGeneral Liability Insurance
Coverage ScopeProtects against third-party injuries and property damage on the premisesBroad spectrum of legal liabilities, including contractual disputes, defamation, copyright infringement, product liabilityProtects against third-party injuries and property damage, both on and off the premises, as well as advertising injuries, reputational damage, and product liability
Target UsersBusinesses with physical locations where the public visits (shops, restaurants, hotels)Businesses facing diverse legal risks across various areasMost businesses, regardless of location or industry
Typical ExclusionsIntentional acts, employee injuries, contractual liabilitiesIntentional acts, criminal acts, environmental damageIntentional acts, criminal acts, professional errors & omissions, contractual liabilities
Common Policy NamesGeneral Liability Insurance (in some regions)Professional Liability Insurance, Errors & Omissions Insurance, Commercial Liability InsuranceGeneral Liability Insurance
BenefitsPeace of mind against financial burden from lawsuitsFinancial protection for various legal disputes, not just physical injuriesComprehensive coverage for diverse liability risks

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. Who needs public liability insurance?

Public liability insurance is beneficial for businesses that interact with the public, operate in shared spaces, or provide products or services that could potentially cause harm or damage to third parties.

2. Is public liability insurance mandatory?

In many cases, PLI is not legally mandatory, but specific contracts, leases, or event organizers may require businesses to have this coverage. However, the regulatory landscape varies by region.

3. How much does public liability insurance cost?

The cost varies based on factors such as business size, industry, risk exposure, and coverage limits. It helps to obtain quotes from different insurers to find the most suitable and cost-effective option.

This article has been a guide to what is Public Liability Insurance & its meaning. We explain its examples, coverage, benefits and comparison with professional indemnity insurance. You may also take a look at the useful articles below –

Reader Interactions

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *