Directors And Officers Liability Insurance

Updated on January 5, 2024
Article byJyotsna Suthar
Edited byShreya Bansal
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

Directors And Officers (D&O) Liability Insurance Definition

Directors and Officers Liability Insurance refers to the insurance coverage provided to the board of directors, officers, and employees. It protects them against any lawsuits for wrongdoings. Its primary purpose is to cover the legal expenses incurred when shareholders or any third party takes a legal action against them. 

Directors And Officers (D&O) Liability Insurance

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The first origin of the Directors and Officers (D&O) Liability dates back to the era of the Great Depression. It was introduced by the London Insurance Market in 1933. However, its primary application was visible in 1939. Since many companies failed and became bankrupt, this insurance policy protected the company directors and officers from unwanted expenses

Key Takeaways

  • Directors and Officers Liability Insurance serves as a protective shield offered by insurance companies to directors, officers, and the company itself, providing coverage against legal and financial damages.
  • This insurance proves particularly beneficial when top executives fail to perform their job duties as required. Nevertheless, there are specific inclusions to consider.
  • The policy typically encompasses three main clauses: Side A, Side B, and Side C. Inclusions may vary among insurers based on the company’s model and performance history.
  • Additionally, specific exclusions are not covered by this insurance. It is essential to be aware of these exclusions when evaluating the scope of coverage provided.

Directors And Officers Liability Insurance Explained

Directors and officers liability insurance policy refers to a type of cover provided to senior company executives. It occurs when the board of directors or officers follow unethical practices in their job. As a result, shareholders might make allegations against them. And this move brings massive damage to the company’s branding as well as goodwill. Therefore, significant companies prefer directors and officers liability covers. It serves as a claim for the defense taken during wrong allegations and lawsuits. So, if a consumer puts a case on management, this insurance can protect them from any charges and expenses. In short, it saves from the financial damages and settlements arising during the course. 

The process or the need for this insurance usually arises from any wrongdoing in the organization. In short, a manager or director may fail to perform their job. Thus, the respective result will be visible in the later stages. For instance, there might be reporting errors, malpractices, wrong behavior, hidden disclosures, violations, and others. And if this error gets spotted by any person, entity, or party, they may sue executives or directors. As a result, the D&O policy comes to the rescue.

There are various reasons for choosing D&O insurance under certain situations. Let us look at them:

  • Failure to comply with regulatory compliances during mergers and acquisitions
  • Issues in the accounting records
  • Any harassment, discrimination, or unethical behavior with the employees
  • Vulnerability to shareholder’s claims
  • Irregular corporate governance compliances and others


The D&O Insurance covers a lot of aspects under the policy. Although insurers have some additions to it, the outline remains the same. Let us look at them:


In the D&O policy, there are different clauses presented to the clients. They enable varying features to the directors and other executives. They are as follows:

#1 – Side A 

The first clause of directors and officers liability insurance coverage includes the directors and officers when a company refuses to pay any compensation. Such a situation is majorly seen in cases where a firm declares bankruptcy or dissolution. Also, if the individual director or officer gets sued, this insurance provides the required coverage. Therefore, they are the only individual executives who can have the cost benefits, as it covers only the individual assets. 

#2 – Side B 

The Side B clause provides coverage in situations where the company grants indemnification (or compensation) to the directors and officers. In short, the legal costs are borne by the company, but the insurer provides the coverage in return. However, the reimbursement is only released if the company agrees to pay the grant. 

#3 – Side C 

The last type of coverage includes the Side C clause that grants coverage to the corporate entity (or company). It is also known as entity coverage. As a result, any unlawful act of an entity will receive compensation. Here, the company’s assets are at risk as they are solely receiving it. 

Other Features

In addition to the above clauses, there are other features also included in this policy. It covers emergency costs, crisis response, mitigation and avoidance services, kidnap response, and assets costs. Besides, the nature of the policy may differ across different business models, needs, history, and performance.  

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Let us look at some real-world and hypothetical examples of D&O insurance to comprehend the concept better:

Example #1

Suppose Aldrin is a member of the board of directors at Samyn Ltd, a telecommunications company with a decade-long history in the industry. Aldrin has served as a board member for four years, during which the company consistently achieved top performance. However, allegations of unethical behavior were raised against Aldrin by some employees a month ago, leading to a lawsuit. After a month of court proceedings, Aldrin was found not guilty. Despite his dismissal, legal charges totaling $100,000,000 were incurred during the legal process.

Throughout this ordeal, Aldrin’s reputation and goodwill suffered a significant blow. To alleviate the financial burden, the company opted to compensate him through directors and officers liability insurance. Consequently, Aldrin received a grant of approximately $90,000, along with some additional benefits.

Example #2

As of November 2023, the market size of Directors and Officers (D&O) insurance stands at $25.21 billion, with projections indicating a substantial increase to $48.81 billion by the year 2030. The anticipated growth is expected to follow a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.90% from 2024 to 2030. Multiple factors contribute to the dynamics of this market, encompassing influences such as inflation, disruptions in the supply chain, technological advancements, changes in the competitive landscape, and other relevant factors.


In addition to providing coverage for senior executives, directors, and officers, liability insurance for not-for-profit organizations and companies includes several exclusions. Let us examine them:

  1. The policy does not encompass any dishonest or fraudulent actions committed by directors or officers.
  2. It excludes coverage for fines or penalties imposed by regulatory bodies.
  3. Insurance may not be provided in cases where both insured individuals are from the same organization.
  4. Bodily damage or property damage is not within the scope of coverage for D&O insurance.
  5. Attempted theft of intellectual property, trade information, or secrets by directors or officers renders the insurance inapplicable.
  6. Similarly, pollution damage is not covered by this insurance. Additionally, there may be other exclusions, varying from insurer to insurer.

Advantages And Disadvantages

Following are the advantages and disadvantages of D&O insurance in a real-world scenario. Let us look at them:

It shields the directors and officers from any liability occurring from allegations.The cost of directors and officers liability insurance for non-profit organizations can be expensive at times.
This insurance provides coverage against legal and financial damage.Small businesses may find it unnecessary to face such lawsuits, leading to potential non-application.
It helps to retain the company’s goodwill and select the talent of a few executives.The insurance may not provide coverage in cases such as property or bodily damage.
It offers protection against unlawful claims made against directors and officers.Some firms may prioritize developing public trust over-relying on insurance.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. Who can claim under a D&O policy?

The policy covers not only directors and officers but also includes former, present, or future board members and senior executives such as chief executive officers, chief financial officers, chief technology officers, chief operating officers, chief sales officers, chief marketing officers, and others. However, it is essential to note that their tenure must fall within the duration of the insurance policy.

2. Is management liability the same as D&O?

While both terms differ in various contexts, it’s important to note that D&O insurance is a mandatory component of management liability insurance. The latter is a broader concept that encompasses various coverages such as employee practices, corporate actions, crime, and others, tailored to the organization’s specific needs.

3. Is D&O the same as professional liability insurance?

Professional liability is an insurance coverage that protects against professional services performed by businesses and individuals. In contrast, Directors and officers insurance is a type of professional liability with specific provisions for directors and officers.

This article has been a guide to Directors And Officers Liability Insurance and its definition. We explain its coverage, examples, exclusions, & advantages. You may also take a look at the useful articles below –

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