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- Accounting Basics
- What are Accounting Principles
- Accounting Cycle
- Accrual Accounting Basis
- Cash Basis Accounting
- Matching Principle of Accounting
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- Revenue Recognition Principle
- Prudence Concept in Accounting
- Cash Accounting
- What are Accounting Policies?
- Relevance in Accounting
- Accounting Estimates
- Mark to Market Accounting
- Prior Period Adjustments
- Cash Accounting vs Accrual Accounting
- Break Even Point In Accounting
- Operating Cycle
- Fiscal Year
- Fiscal Year vs Calendar Year | Top Differences | Examples |
- Financial Reporting
- Financial Statements
- Accrual vs Provision
- Accrual vs Deferral
- Temporal Method
- Interim Financial Statements
- Pro Forma Financial Statements
- Consolidated Financial Statement
- Audited Financial Statements
- Financial Statement Audit
- Internal Audit vs External Audit
- Interim Reporting
- Accounting Scandals
- Quality of Earnings
- Audit Risk
- Sunk Cost
- Leasehold vs Freehold
- IFRS vs US GAAP
- IFRS vs Indian GAAP
- Accounting for Fair Value Hedges
- Debit vs Credit in Accounting
- Single Entry System in Accounting
- Double Entry Accounting System
- Journal in Accounting
- Adjusting Entries in Journal
- General Journal
- Accounting Journal Entry
- Ledger in Accounting
- T Accounts
- Account Balance
- Journal vs Ledger
- General Journal vs General Ledger
- What is Trial Balance ? | Examples | Steps | Prepare | Errors
- Nominal Account
- Adjusted Trial Balance
- Reconciliation of Books | Types, Best Practices | Useful Tips
- Petty Cash | Meaning | Template | Accounting | Example
- Petty Cash Book
- Debit Note | Debit Notes Accounting & its Top Characteristics
- Credit Note
- Debit Note vs Credit Note | Top 7 Differences (Infographics)
- Drawing Account
- Balance Sheet
- Balance Sheet
- Balance Sheet Purpose
- Capital Expenditure Formula
- Statement of Financial Position
- Accounting Equation
- Assets vs Liabilities | Top 9 Differences (with Infographics)
- Equity vs Assets
- Trial Balance vs Balance Sheet | Top 10 Differences You Must Know!
- Balance Sheet vs Consolidated Balance Sheet
- Bank vs Company Balance Sheet
- Banks Balance Sheet
- Commitments and Contingencies
- Management Discussion & Analysis
- Revenue Reserve vs Capital Reserve | Top 7 Differences
- Revenue Reserve
- Capital Reserve
- Capital Receipts vs Revenue Receipts | Top 8 Differences
- Capital Lease vs Operating Lease | Top Differences You Must Know!
- Debt vs Equity Financing | Advantages | Disadvantages | Example
- Internal vs External Financing | Top 7 Differences (Infographics)
- Available for Sale for securities
- Held to Maturity to securities
- Non-Performing Assets (NPA)
- Cash and Cash Equivalents | Examples, List & Top Differences
- Cash Equivalents
- Restricted Cash
- 3 Types of Inventory | Raw Material | WIP | Finished Goods
- Ending Inventory Formula
- Average Inventory Formula
- Closing Stock
- Inventory vs Stock
- Current Assets
- FIFO vs LIFO
- First In First Out (FIFO)
- Last in First Out (LIFO)
- LIFO Reserve
- Non-Current Assets
- Accounts Receivables? | Definition, Accounting Examples
- Accounts Receivables Factoring
- Trade Receivables
- Net Realizable Value (NRV)
- Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
- Accrued Revenue
- Liquid Assets
- Quick Assets
- Marketable Securities on the Balance Sheet | Top Examples
- Trading Securities in Balance Sheet
- Prepaid Expenses
- Prepaid Insurance
- Tangible vs Intangible Assets
- Tangible vs Intangible
- Contingent Asset
- Tangible Assets
- Deferred Tax Assets
- Capital Expenditure (Capex)
- Capex vs Opex
- Salvage Value
- Residual Value
- Fixed Capital vs Working Capital | Top 8 Differences (Infographics)
- Impariment of Assets
- Negative Goodwill
- Goodwill Valuation
- Capitalized Interest
- Accounts Payable | Days Payable Outstanding | Formula |
- Current Liabilities | List of Current Liabilities on Balance Sheet
- Accrued Liabilities
- Accrued Interest
- Notes Payable
- Accounts Payable vs Notes Payable
- Revolving Credit Facilities
- Bonds Payable Accounting
- Bad Debt Reserve Allowance
- Deferred Expenses
- Deferred Tax Liabilities
- Unearned Revenue (Sales)
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- Current Portion of Long-Term Debt (CPLTD) | Balance Sheet
- Long-Term Debt in Balance Sheet
- Financial Liabilities | Definition, Types, Ratios, Examples
- Long-Term Liabilities
- Accounts Receivable vs Accounts Payable
- Minority Interest
- Accounting for Convertibles
- Accounting for Derivatives
- Financial Lease vs Operating Lease
- Off balance Sheet Financing
- Finance vs Lease
- Bond vs Loan
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- Shareholders Equity
- Shareholders Equity Statement
- Negative Shareholders Equity
- Par Value of Stock
- Share Capital
- Outstanding Shares (Definition, Formula) | Stocks Outstanding
- Additional Paid-in Capital on Balance Sheet
- Retained Earnings (Formula, Examples) | How to Calculate?
- Retained Earnings Formula
- Statement of Retained Earnings
- Appropriated Retained Earnings
- Unappropriated Retained Earnings
- How to Calculate Net Worth of a Company | Formula | Top Examples
- Owners Equity
- Preferred Shares
- Non-Cumulative Preference Shares
- Participating Preferred Stock
- Weighted average Shares average outstanding
- Share Buyback
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- Restricted Stocks Units (RSUs)
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- Final Dividend
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- Qualified vs Ordinary Dividend
- Wealth vs Profit Maximization
- Cost of preferred Stock
- Common Stock vs Preferred Stock | Top 8 Differences You Must Know
- Stocks Vs Shares
- Stock Options Vs RSU
- Shareholder Equity vs Net Worth | Top 5 Differences You Must Know!
- Stock vs Option
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- Income Statement
- Income Statement | Top Examples | Template | Format | Analysis
- Variable Costing Income Statement
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- Purpose of Income Statement
- Cost of Goods Sold
- COGS Formula
- Average Total Cost Formula
- Gross Profit
- Direct Costs
- Indirect Costs
- Prime Cost
- Duty vs Tariff
- Net Income Formula
- EBITDA Formula
- Operating Expense (OPEX)
- Interest Expense
- LTM EBITDA
- Non Recurring Items
- EBIT vs EBITDA | Top Differences | Examples | Calculation
- Depreciation – Formula | Types | Most Comprehensive Guide
- Depreciation Tax Shield
- Accelerated Depreciation
- EBITDA vs Operating Income
- Straight Line Depreciation Method
- Sum of Year Digits Method of Depreciation
- Declining Balance Method of Depreciation
- Land Depreciation
- Double Declining Balance Method
- Amortization of Intangible Assets
- Depreciation vs Amortization
- Unrealized Gains (Losses)
- Non Cash Expense
- Accrued Income
- Share based compensation
- Restructuring Cost
- Extraordinary Items
- Interest Income
- Double Taxation
- Net Loss
- Pro-Forma Earnings
- Margin vs Profit
- Net Operating Loss (NOL)
- Tax Shield
- Sundry Expenses
- Trade Discount
- Percentage of Completion Method
- Interest vs Dividend | Top 9 Differences (with Infographics)
- EBITDA vs Net Income
- EBIT vs Net Income
- EBIT vs Operating Income
- Operating Income vs Net Income
- Cost vs Expense
- Expense vs Expenditure
- Accounting Profit vs Economic Profit
- Income Tax vs Payroll Tax
- Tax credits vs Tax deductions
- Tax Evasion vs Tax Avoidance
- Regressive Tax
- Gross Income vs Net Income
- Profit vs Revenue
- Revenue vs Earnings
- Revenue vs Net Income
- Revenue vs Income
- Profit vs Income
- Revenue vs Sales
- Revenue vs Turnover
- Capitalization vs Expensing
- Income Statement vs Balance Sheet | Top 5 Differences You Must Know!
- Statement of Comprehensive Income | Items | Colgate Example
- Variance Analysis
- Other Comprehensive Income
- Partial Income Statement
- Income Summary Account
- FOB Destination
- Explicit Cost
- Implicit Cost
- Direct cost vs Indirect Cost
- Fixed cost vs Variable cost
- Price vs Cost
- Hard Cost vs Soft Cost
- Period Cost vs Product Cost
- Overhead Costs
- Nopat vs Net Income
- Marginal Costing vs Absorption Costing
- Marginal Cost Formula
- Margin vs Markup
- Markup Formula
- Contribution Margin vs Gross Margin
- Cash Flow Statement
- Statement of Cash Flow
- Cash flow from Operations | Formula, Calculations & Examples
- Operating Cash Flow Formula
- Cash Flow from Investing Activities (Formula & Top Examples)
- Cash Flow From Financing Activities | Formula & Calculations
- Cash Flow Analysis
- Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement
- Fund Flow Statement
- FFO (Funds from Operations)
- Direct vs Indirect Cash Flow Methods
- Cash flow vs Net Income | Key Differences & Top Examples
- Cash Flow vs Fund Flow | Top 8 Differences (with Infographics)
- Accounting Careers
- Accounting Interview Questions
- Financial Accounting Careers
- Top Accounting Firms
- Big Four Accounting Firms
- Forensic Accounting
- Cost Accounting
- Financial Accounting
- Accounting vs Engineering
- Finance vs Accounting
- Bookkeeping vs Accounting
- Accounting vs Auditing
- Accountant vs Actuary
- Bookkeepers vs Accountants
- Accounting vs Financial Management
- Cost Accounting vs Financial Accounting
- Cost Accounting vs Management Accounting
- Financial Accounting vs Management Accounting
- Public vs Private Accounting
- Accounting vs CPA
- Controller vs Comptroller
- Personal Banker Job Description
- Accounting Firms in Australia
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- Top Accounting Firms in US
- Accounting Firms in Singapore
- Accounting Books
Let us look at the Income statement of Colgate below. In the year 2015, there is a charge for Venezuela accounting change.
source: Colgate 10K 2015
If you notice the item that is highlighted above, we see that the Operating profit decreases significantly due the presence of this item. Also, this item is not present in the other years (2014 and 2013). This item is nothing but Non Recurring item and it can have some serious implications on Financial analysis.
In this article, we look at the following –
- What are Non Recurring Items
- Examples of Non Recurring Items
- Types of Non Recurring Items
- What problem do non recurring items pose to Investors and Analysts?
- Remedies for dealing with Non Recurring Items
What are non recurring items?
Investors use extensively these statements in order to decide whether to invest in a firm or not hence, there has to be a transparent disclosure of revenue & expenses from the firm’s end to ensure that correct information flows to the outside world. But in reality, this doesn’t happens. Most firms report their income & expenses as per GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) which is sometimes difficult to interpret for an analyst.
For example, suppose a company purchases a land then GAAP asks the company to report the difference between the Market Price & Purchase price of the land as an Intangible asset and it also asks the firm to report amortization for the intangible assets over a period of time. Such entries are conditional in nature and are related to occurrence of an event ex. purchase of property. Further, such entries gave rise to non-operating revenues and non- operating expenses as these are not tied up with the core business function of a firm. GAAP asks the firms to report a single consolidated number which causes these items to get hidden within the figures thus leading to distortion in valuation.
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Examples of Non Recurring Items
Here are some cases when Non-recurring items have affected profit favorably or adversely. The companies referred in these examples are hypothetical.
- XYZ India Bank: The bank reported a drop of 65% in net profit for the September 2015 quarter as a result of higher provisioning done to cover pension, gratuity and loan losses arising as a result of a higher NPA %.
- ABC Pharmaceuticals Ltd: The Company reported a net loss of $1000 million for the March 2014 quarter though its revenue actually grew by 30 %. This loss was attributable to impairment loss, which company took, on the goodwill and other intangible assets of its South African arm.
- XYZ Overseas: The Company reported a growth of 15% in y-o-y revenue but being an import-export player, it got exposed to currency volatility which resulted in a loss of $100 million as the net profit dipped by 20%.
- KKK Group: The Company’s December quarter for 2015 showed a growth of 150% in y-o-y profit. There was a sale of equity stake in one of its subsidiary within the same financial period. If we exclude the gains from equity stake then the net actual profit rose just 20 %.
- Corp PPP Ltd.: The Company was the market leader in the FMCG industry of the US. It reported a profit of 11% in the quarter of December 2015 even after incurring a loss of $150 million as a result of a one-time gain of $400 million that it recorded from property disposal with in the same financial year.
- MMM Associates : The company reported a gain of 8.5% in its revenue y-o-y for 2015 but it suffered loss as a result of expropriation of its property in Ireland by the local government . This brought down its Net income to just 3.75% more than last year’s figure.
Types of Non Recurring Items
There are primarily four types of Non Recurring Items, They are –
- Infrequent or Unusual Items
- Extraordinary Items (Infrequent and Unusual)
- Discontinued Operations
- Changes in Accounting Principles
We will discuss each non recurring item type in detail.
#1 – Infrequent or Unusual Items
The first type of non recurring item is Infrequent or Unusual Items. These items are either unusual or infrequent but NOT BOTH. These items are reported pre-tax whereas the other three types are reported post-tax.
Infrequent or Unusual Items Examples
- Write-offs or Write Downs of inventory or receivables
- Restructuring cost when acquiring & integrating a new company or implementing changes with in an existing one
- Gain or losses from sale of assets in subsidiaries/affiliates
- Losses incurred from a law suit
- Loss incurred from plant shutdown
Below is an example of Restructuring and asset impairment charges in Intel.
source: Intel Website
#2 – Extraordinary Items (Infrequent and Unusual)
The second type of non recurring item is Extraordinary Items (Infrequent or Unusual Items)
Extra-ordinary Items are both infrequent & unusual and are reported net of income tax.
Extraordinary Items Examples
- Compensation from expropriation of company’s property
- Uninsured losses incurred by the company as a result of natural calamities like earthquake, floods or Tornadoes
- Weather related damage to a property at a place where the occurrence of weather phenomenon is less frequent
- Damage caused due to fire in plant
- Gain or loss from early retirement of debt
- Gain on life insurance/ loss incurred on casualty
- Write-off of intangible assets
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) doesn’t recognizes the concept of extraordinary items at all
Very recently Japan’s Sony Corp estimated $1 billion as earthquake related damages.
#3 – Discontinued Operations
The third type of non recurring item is the Discontinued Operations. These non reucrring items are required to be reported in the financial statements if the operation of a part of a firm is either being held for sale or has been already disposed-off. For an item to be qualified as a part of discontinued operations, two basic conditions should be fulfilled -:
- There is no involvement/ influence by the parent company related to financial/ operational matters with in the discontinued component, once the component has been successfully disposed.
- The operations and cash flows from the disposed component will be eliminated from the parents operations.
Impact of discontinued operations appear in the Income Statement as seen below.
Examples include -:
- A Company sells an entire product line with an agreement by the buyer to pay x% of sales as royalty fee. The company will have no involvement/ influence in operational/financial decision making of the spunned-off product line.
- A company sells a product group, with which cash flows where associated and reported at that level, to a buyer.
Note-: if a company sells just a product from its business portfolio to a buyer, it might not qualify as a discontinued operation in case the company is not reporting cash flows at that product level. Also, all contingency liabilities, including interest expenses incurred by the seller in the event of the buyer assuming any debts associated with the disposed component, adjustments related to the selling price and any benefit plans associated with the employees, have to be reported by the selling entity under the discontinued operation segment within the same year.
Below is an example of Discontinued Operations for GE
#4 – Changes in Accounting Principles
The fourth non recurring item is the changes in Accounting Principles.
Changes in accounting principles happen when there is more than one principle available for applying to a particular financial situation. Changes should be backed by rationale that proves their relevance. These changes have impact not only on the current year financial statements but also on the financial statements of prior periods as they have to be applied retrospectively to ensure uniformity. Retrospective implementation ensures that proper comparison can be done between the financial statements of different periods. Usually, an offsetting amount is adjusted to capture the cumulative effect of such changes.
Changes in Accounting Principles Examples
- Change in inventory management principle from LIFO to FIFO or Specific identification method of inventory valuation or vice versa leads to a significant change in the inventory cost
- Change in the depreciation method from Straight line method to Sum of digits or hours of service method also leads to significant change in the way depreciation amount is reported
In the below mentioned example, we can see that, how a P&L statement should represent Extra-ordinary items, Gain/Loss from Changes in accounting principles and gains from disposal of assets. They all are captured below the line i.e. after the calculation of income from Continued Operations. Such kind of separation helps an analyst to identify the true earnings of an organization.
What problem do non recurring items pose to Investors and Analysts?
- Investors and analysts perform financial statement analysis to estimate the future earnings from current earnings.
- In reality, the profits reported in the statements are noisy i.e. they get distorted by the inclusion of gains & losses from non-operating and non-recurring items. This problem is referred as “the issue of Earnings Quality”.
- Many companies are increasing their Non-operating income as it helps them to hide the losses which they incur from their normal business operations.
- It is the immediate job of an analyst to identify the main sources of revenue and expenses and to also identify the extent to which the company’s earnings depend on them.
- Non –Recurring items are an important source of distortion when it comes to identifying high quality earnings.
- It is suggested that all Non-Operating items (including Non-Recurring items) should be segregated by the analysts so that the resulting earnings represent the true picture of future earnings from regular and continuous business activities.
- This helps in getting a more accurate valuation of a company.
The below-mentioned example shows a re-stated Income statement due to Discontinued Operations. Though the Net Income remains unchanged, the re-stated statement allocates the income between Income from Continued Operations and Income from Discontinued Operations.
Also, Investors and analysts’ needs to be always aware of the management’s decision to make accounting changes and adjustments as they drastically impact a companies’ valuation.
- Senior management is well aware of critical decisions such as when to spun-off a business or close a service line and it uses this very advantage in its favor to cover up the quest for future profits by bunching up adjustments and using them at the apt time i.e. when the earnings are expected to be the weakest.
- Also, whenever there is a change in the management, old projects are written-off mainly to show strong changes and improvement for future periods.
- Therefore, it is very important for investors and Security & Exchange board to ask questions regarding the relevance of such changes and sell offs.
- A security analyst should consider all such scenarios while carrying out valuation of the company as they encapsulate hidden motives which are strong enough to distort the valuation figures.
Remedies for dealing with Non Recurring Items
Reporting standards follow different approaches when it comes to displaying the Non-Recurring items. IFRS ignores extraordinary items completely but reports all other types whereas GAAP reports all types of non-recurring items. These items are well explained in the foot notes of financial statements.
#1 – Allocate them with in the Single Financial year
This approach talks about reporting a non-recurring item with in the same financial year. Though allocating gains or losses to a single year doesn’t seems to be a right way for handling such items, it is still preferred when dealing with items that have small amount attached to them or they have very little impact on valuation matrices like EBITDA or Net Income.
#2 – Use Straight line spreading (Distributing them historically)
This approach emphasizes on the principal of spreading the non-recurring items over the past accounting periods to estimate the real earning power of the company. The only de-merit that it carries is that it may misrepresent the economies within a financial period
#3 – Exclude them all together
Though it seems to be the easiest of the three approaches, it involves a lot of rationalization and logical thinking by the analyst while deciding which item he/she should exclude. There has to be a proper justification for the exclusion and when he/she does this, there has to be a proper adjustment in the tax to nullify the gain/loss attached with the item. For example –: An early retirement of debt can be excluded from the current year.
A consistent and rational approach would be the one which emphasizes more on the nature of the non-recurring item for deciding which of the three above mentioned methodologies have to be used rather than using one of them on a standalone basis.
It is suggested that -:
- Small items which have a very lesser impact on the Net Income should be accepted with a financial year itself.
- If an item is altogether excluded, the proper adjustment should be done while reporting the income tax.
- Items excluded from the single year analysis should be included in a historical statement, which encompasses different accounting periods, using the straight line spreading approach. This averages out their effect just like capitalization averages out the revenue/expenses of a newly acquired asset (PP&E) over its useful life.
- Above the Line vs Below the Line Differences
- Prior Period Adjustments – Example
- What are Financial Statements?
- Tangible Assets Examples in Companies
- Restructuring Cost Example
- Extraordinary Losses
- Tax Shield on Interest
- Net operating Loss NOL
- Financial Ratio Analysis excel
- Income Statement Definition
- EBIT vs EBITDA Analysis
- Formula of Depreciation
- Management Discussion and Analysis and Notes