Bad Debt Reserve

What is  Bad Debt Reserve (Allowance)?

Bad debt reserve also known as the allowance for doubtful accounts is the amount of provision made by the company against the accounts receivable present in the books of accounts of the company for which it is more likely that company will not be able to collect the money in future.

It is an account that offsets (reduces) the accounts receivablesAccounts ReceivablesAccounts receivables refer to the amount due on the customers for the credit sales of the products or services made by the company to them. It appears as a current asset in the corporate balance sheet.read more in the books of accounts.

The thumb rule of business is generating profit. Keeping non-profit organizations aside, which work for the betterment of the society, all other organizations work towards earning a profit by means of increasing revenue. As we all know, revenue earned by organizations is not settled by cash at the time of delivery of goods or completion of service. There is a time lag in between which we refer to as a credit periodCredit PeriodCredit period refers to the duration of time that a seller gives the buyer to pay off the amount of the product that he or she purchased from the seller. It consists of three components - credit analysis, credit/sales terms and collection policy.read more.

E.g., Great & Co. is involved in the business of manufacturing heavy machinery, which generally costs more than $ 1,00,000 per piece. In this case, the payment terms defined as per the company policy are as follows:

  1. The advance of 10% on acceptance of an order.
  2. Release of 30% payment on completion of 50% of the work order after certification by the customer
  3. Release of 30% payment on delivery of the machinery at the customer’s warehouse
  4. Release of full and final payment 30 days after the delivery

As you must have noticed, the payment terms in the above case are a bit complex. Now let us take another example of letting us take an example of Small & Co., which is involved in the business of supplying leather accessories such as wallets, belts, etc. The credit policy of the company is that all payments are due within 45 days of delivery of goods to the customer. As opposed to Great & Co., Small & Co. has straightforward payment terms.

No matter how simple or complex the credit policy or payment terms a company has, they are bound to be some credit risk involved. Credit risk is nothing but the fact that the customer might not end up paying the money when due. There are no two thoughts about the fact that this would lead to loss to the company. To account for this loss, the company maintains a provision in its books of accounts.

Bad Debt Reserve

Why is a bad debt reserve required?

Accounting has its own rules and principles which need to be adhered to while maintaining and updating books of accounts. The basic governing accounting principleAccounting PrincipleAccounting principles are the set guidelines and rules issued by accounting standards like GAAP and IFRS for the companies to follow while recording and presenting the financial information in the books of accounts.read more is the Conservatism Principle of Accounting – which indicates that losses should be accounted for at the earliest, while profit should be accounted for only after sufficient proof is available that the profit will be accrued shortly.

Since there is always a possibility of debts turning bad and customers not paying the complete amount, we tend to maintain a reserve in the books of accounts for future events.

Bad Debt Reserve Example

To understand it works, let us first see the basic entry which we pass for accounting a credit sale transaction in the books of accounts.

Small & Co. has received an order of 500 leather wallets at the selling price of $ 10 each. It has successfully delivered these goods at the customer’s warehouse as per the pre-approved terms of trade. The risk of the inventory has been passed on to the customer when the customer has accepted the delivery of goods. At this point of time, we pass the following journal entry in the books:

Accounts Receivable A/c …. Debit$ 5000
To Sales A/c ….. Credit$ 5000

As we can see, Accounts Receivable will always show a debit balanceDebit BalanceIn a General Ledger, when the total credit entries are less than the total number of debit entries, it refers to a debit balance. A debit balance is a net amount often calculated as debit minus credit in the General Ledger after recording every transaction.read more in the books, whereas sales being revenue will be transferred to profit & loss account.

Now, as the purpose of the bad debt reserve is to offset the Accounts Receivables, it will have a credit balance the books of accounts. The journal entry for bad debt reserve is as follows:

Bad Debt Expense A/c or Allowance for Bad debt A/c …. Debit$ 50
To Bad Debt Reserve A/c ….. Credit$ 50

The Bad Debt Reserve account will reduce the Accounts Receivable A/c by $ 50, and net Accounts Receivable to be presented in the Books of Accounts will be $ 4950 (Balance Sheet of the company).

Bad Debt Reserve Accounting

As you must have noticed, two different accounts have been used to give the debit effect for the above bad debt reserver journal entry. It is because there are two ways to account for a Bad Debt Expense:

  1. The direct bad debt writes off method – This particular method is used when the organization can pinpoint the invoice for which payment is not going to be received. This method involves writing off the revenue itself and is possible when there is a one to one correlation between the sales and the debt turning bad. It is an aggressive method, and in this case, the entire invoice is reversed, which also leads to the reversal of taxes and other statutory dues booked along with the invoice.
  2. The provisioning method – This is a less aggressive method to account for bad debt reserve. In this case, a provision is created for the bad debt expense, which can be written off in the next accounting periodAccounting PeriodAccounting Period refers to the period in which all financial transactions are recorded and financial statements are prepared. This might be quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, depending on the period for which you want to create the financial statements to be presented to investors so that they can track and compare the company's overall performance.read more, and again a fresh provision is created. Most organizations prefer to go ahead with this method. This method goes hand in hand with the matching concept and accrual accountingAccrual AccountingAccrual Accounting is an accounting method that instantly records revenues & expenditures after a transaction occurs, irrespective of when the payment is received or made. read more concept.

Matching concept revenue booked in a given period should be matched with the expenses incurred towards earning the revenue. It basically means expenses should also be recognized in the same period in which revenue is recognized. By using the provision method, you can recognize bad debtsBad DebtsBad Debts can be described as unforeseen loss incurred by a business organization on account of non-fulfillment of agreed terms and conditions on account of sale of goods or services or repayment of any loan or other obligation.read more allowance in the period in which the revenue is booked.

The above advantage of the provision method is the disadvantage of the direct bad debt writeWriteWrite off is the reduction in the value of the assets that were present in the books of accounts of the company on a particular period of time and are recorded as the accounting expense against the payment not received or the losses on the assets.read more off method. There will always be a time lag when the revenue is booked, and the company is sure that the amount will not be receivable. It does not go well with the matching concept of accounting and is therefore not accepted by the Accounting Standards as well.

Techniques to estimate the bad debt allowance

After having understood the meaning of bad debt reserve, the next important question is how to determine the amount of expense to be booked on account of bad debt allowance. There are several techniques which are available for estimating the bad debt allowance; however, some of the most important ones are as follows:

#1 – Historical Data

Historical data provides a sufficient base for predictions and estimations. Trend analysis can be performed on historical data, which can be used to estimate the required bad debt expenseEstimate The Required Bad Debt ExpenseBad debt expense is an expense recorded in financial statements when the amount receivable from debtors is unrecoverable owing to the debtors' inability to meet their financial obligations and can be calculated using the direct method of allowance/estimation method.read more.

The following historical data gives an overview of debt turning bad in a given period as a percentage of the total receivables booked in that period.

Particulars2013201420152016
Accounts Receivable as on 31-Dec of the given year$ 1,92,000$ 2,20,000$ 1,85,000$ 2,07,000
Actual bad debt expense in the given year$ 3,500$ 4,100$ 3,600$ 4,050
Percentage of actual bad debt expense as a ratio of accounts receivable1.82%1.86%1.95%1.96%

From the above data, a trend can easily be determined. It is clear that the actual bad debt of the company is increasing year on year but very steadily. There is not a great jump in any of the given years. The trend has been set in the past years. It is more than evident that the actual bad debt expense for the company is somewhere less than 2%, the company can prudently take 2% of the accounts receivable as bad debt allowance in the calendar year 2017.

Trend analysis and historical data generally give some insight to the decision-makers of the company. But there can be cases where no trend no can be developed, or no past data is available or the data available is not complete/correct. In these cases, the company can opt for other techniques to estimate the bad debt allowance.

#2 – Pareto analysis

Pareto analysisPareto AnalysisPareto analysis is a decision making technique based on the 80/20 rule where the company can achieve 80% of the project's benefits by doing the 20% of the work, or the 80% problems of the company are traced to 20 % causes.read more is a statistical technique that can be used to estimate the amount of bad debt allowance. Pareto principle is governed by the 80-20 rule, which means that generally, 80% of the benefit is derived by doing just 20% of the work.

Applying this principle to accounts receivable, we can say that generally, 80% of the total accounts receivable presented in the books of accounts comprises 20% of the total number of customers. So, in other words, this 20 % of the customers are recurring and the key customers, which will generally not end up defaulting if they want a regular supply of goods or services from the company. For analyzing bad debt expense, the company can focus on the remaining 80% of the customers, which will account for only 20% of the accounts receivable of the balance sheet.

There is no perfect method, and a company can opt for the method, keeping in mind its history, competitiveness in the market, industry experience, etc. A combination of the above methods can also be used.

Provision Percentage for Bad Debt Expense

The amount of bad debt expense which a company can incur generally depends on the following factors:

#1 – Credit policy of the company:

The credit policy of the company is governed by the risk appetiteRisk AppetiteRisk appetite refers to the amount, rate, or percentage of risk that an individual or organization (as determined by the Board of Directors or management) is willing to accept in exchange for its plan, objectives, and innovation.read more of the company as a whole. If the company is a risk-taker, then it is bound to have a liberal credit policy, e.g., having favorable payment terms such as 60 days credit instead of the usual 45 days credit. On the other hand, a risk-averse company will have a strict credit policy, e.g., it may require a thorough background check of all its customers before accepting a new order from them.

Generally speaking, companies with strict credit policies are prone to lesser bad debt expense than companies that have a policy of increasing revenue irrespective of the fact to whom they sell the products.

#2 – Market dynamics:

The economic health of the company, sector, and country is also a determining factor towards the total amount of bad debt expense for a given company. If an economy as a whole is facing difficult times (war, economic depression), bad debt expenses are bound to increase in the country in which goods are supplied.

#3 – Sector to which the company belongs:

The bad debt expense is also dependent on the sector to which the company belongs. e.g., the telecommunication sector has its major source of revenue through its prepaid customers where there is no scope of bad debt expenses as it provides services only after receipt of money. In this sector, companies have to account for bad debt allowance only for its post-paid customers.

#4 – Overall analysis of the company’s accounts receivables by putting them into the following buckets:

  • Less than 90 days old
  • 91 days to 180 days old
  • 181 days to 1 year old
  • More than a year old but less than 2 years old
  • More than two years old

The company can drill down further into each bucket, especially in more than 180 olds bracket and figure out the reasons for the delay, settle disputes, if any. This exercise will give a fair idea to the company about the debt structure and total provision it should maintain to cover the foreseeable bad debt expenses. On the bright side, this activity might also help recover some long-pending debts by constant follow-up.

How is bad debt reserve used to manipulate the books of accounts?

To avoid the above situations, the top-down approach to management and strict policies will go a long way in securing the future of the company.

Bad Debt Reserve Video

 

This article has been a guide to what is Bad Debt Reserve and its definition. Here we discuss accounting for bad debt allowance along with examples and provisions for Bad Debt Expense. You can also go through the following accounting articles to learn more –

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