Financial Modeling Tutorials
- Excel Modeling
- Financial Functions in Excel
- Sensitivity Analysis in Excel
- Sensitivity Analysis
- Capital Budgeting Techniques
- Time Value of Money
- Future Value Formula
- Present Value Factor
- Perpetuity Formula
- Present Value vs Future Value
- Annuity vs Pension
- Present Value of an Annuity
- Doubling Time Formula
- Annuity Formula
- Present Value of an Annuity Formula
- Future Value of Annuity Due Formula
- Maturity Value
- Annuity vs Perpetuity
- Annuity vs Lump Sum
- Deferred Annuity Formula
- Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
- IRR Examples (Internal Rate of Return)
- NPV vs XNPV
- NPV vs IRR
- NPV Formula
- NPV Profile
- NPV Examples
- Advantages and Disadvantages of NPV
- Mutually Exclusive Projects
- PV vs NPV
- IRR vs ROI
- Break Even Point
- Break Even Analysis
- Breakeven Analysis Examples
- Break Even Chart
- Benefit Cost Ratio
- Payback Period & Discounted Payback Period
- Payback period Formula
- Discounted Payback Period Formula
- Payback Period Advantages and Disadvantages
- Profitability Index
- Feasibility Study Examples
- Cash Burn Rate
- Interest Formula
- Simple Interest
- Simple Interest vs Compound Interest
- Simple Interest Formula
- CAGR Formula (Compounded Annual Growth Rate)
- Growth Rate Formula
- Effective Interest Rate
- Loan Amortization Schedule
- Mortgage Formula
- Loan Principal Amount
- Interest Rate Formula
- Rate of Return Formula
- Effective Annual Rate
- Effective Annual Rate Formula (EAR)
- Compounding Formula
- Compound Interest
- Compound Interest Examples
- Daily Compound Interest
- Monthly Compound Interest Formula
- Discount Rate vs Interest Rate
- Discounting Formula
- Rule of 72
- Geometric Mean Return
- Geometric Mean vs Arithmetic Mean
- Real Rate of Return Formula
- Continuous compounding Formula
- Weighted average Formula
- Average Formula
- EWMA (Exponentially Weighted Moving Average)
- Average Rate of Return Formula
- Mean Formula
- Mean Examples
- Population Mean Formula
- Weighted Mean Formula
- Harmonic Mean Formula
- Median Formula in Statistics
- Range Formula
- Outlier Formula
- Decile Formula
- Midrange Formula
- Quartile Deviation
- Expected Value Formula
- Exponential Growth Formula
- Margin of Error Formula
- Decrease Percentage Formula
- Relative Change
- Percent Error Formula
- Holding Period Return Formula
- Cost Benefit Analysis
- Cost Benefit Analysis Examples
- Cost Volume Profit Analysis
- Opportunity Cost Formula
- Opportunity Cost Examples
- APR vs APY
- Mortgage APR vs Interest Rate
- Normal Distribution Formula
- Standard Normal Distribution Formula
- Normalization Formula
- Bell Curve
- T Distribution Formula
- Regression Formula
- Regression Analysis Formula
- Multiple Regression Formula
- Correlation Coefficient Formula
- Correlation Formula
- Correlation Examples
- Coefficient of Determination
- Population Variance Formula
- Covariance Formula
- Coefficient of Variation Formula
- Sample Standard Deviation Formula
- Relative Standard Deviation Formula
- Standard Deviation Formula
- Standard Deviation Examples
- Effect Size
- Sample Size Formula
- Volatility Formula
- Binomial Distribution Formula
- Hypergeometric Distribution
- Exponential Distribution
- Central Limit Theorem
- Poisson Distribution
- Central Tendency
- Hypothesis Testing
- Gini Coefficient
- Quartile Formula
- P Value Formula
- Skewness Formula
- R Squared Formula
- Adjusted R Squared
- Regression vs ANOVA
- Z Test Formula
- Z Score Formula
- Z Test vs T Test
- F-Test Formula
- Quantitative Research
- Histogram Examples
Opportunity Cost Equation (Table of Contents)
What is Opportunity Cost Formula?
Opportunity Cost is the cost of the next best alternative forgiven. When a business must decide among alternate options they will choose the one that provides them the greatest return.
The equation for the calculation of opportunity cost can be derived from below –
Explanation of Opportunity Cost Formula
Frankly speaking, there is no such specifically agreed or defined on a mathematical formula for the calculation of opportunity cost, but there are certain ways to think about those opportunity costs in a mathematical way and the above formula is one of them.
However, this value may or may not always be measured in terms of money. Value can also be measured by other techniques for example satisfaction or time.
One relative formula for the calculation of opportunity cost could be the equation below –
If we think about the cost of opportunity like this, then the formula is very easy to understand and it’s straightforward.
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Examples of Opportunity Cost Formula
Let’s take a few simples to advanced examples to understand opportunity cost equation –
Trish Marsh has $30,000 worth of stock which she can sell now for at an estimated price for $40,000. Although she wanted to wait for 3 months as the stock price was expected to increase sharply she decides to sell it now. Calculate its opportunity cost, presuming that after 3 months the stock price reaches to $35,000 Let’s try the calculation of opportunity cost with a simple example
The opportunity cost can be determined now and per formula of opportunity cost, it would be the difference between the $40,000 and the price she has gotten now which is $35,000 which is $5,000.
Example #2 – Reliance JIO
Reliance Jio Infocomm Ltd (known as Jio), a mobile network operator in India which is owned by Reliance Industries which is headquartered in Mumbai.
The service, that was launched for all users on 5th September 2016 with a ‘Welcome Offer,’ was originally introduced in beta version for the employees of Reliance only on December 27, 2015, to mark the eighty-third birth anniversary of Dhirubhai Ambani, who was the founder of Reliance Industries.
Introductory offer lured many Indian customers and it was able to manage to get 72 million prime customers within the first three months of its launch but later the company decided to extend its freebies for another three months when it had another option of actually charging the customer and earn revenue and hence it chose to forgive it’s another best alternate for not choosing to bill their customers for the services.
Reliance Jio Infocomm actually missed out on an $800 million (which is Rs 5,400 crore) revenue opportunity as mentioned above by offering an additional three months freebies i.e. free services to its 72 million Prime customers who were actually ready to pay them from 1st of April.
Example #3 – Paytm Investment Opp
Paytm is an Indian e-commerce digital wallet and payment system company, based out of NOIDA S.E.Z in India. Paytm is available ten Indian languages and it offers online use-cases like utility bill payments, travel, movies, mobile recharges and events bookings as well as in-store payments at the grocery stores, vegetables and fruits shops, restaurants, pharmacies, parking, tolls and education institutions with the QR code of Paytm Paytm, which is presently also loss-making company and which has yet to prove its mettle when it comes to business model and providing long-term sustainable product.
Berkshire a globally renowned firm which has the market capitalization of around $500 Billion. Based on its past record, it is also known for one of the most astute and sharpest investors in the world. Berkshire decided to pick up 3 to 4% stake in payments major with Rs 2,500 crore (around $356 million), that was made.
The question now arises as to why and what led Berkshire to invest in Paytm whose losses stood at Rs 900 crore whereas it’s coming to its revenue it was around Rs 829 crore and in the year prior, its loss figure had touched Rs 1,497 crore? What is its expectation with that investment?
Berkshire was aware of the financial opportunity which was available in the Indian market that it had to offer. It would not like to miss it. So here the opportunity cost for Berkshire will be Rs 2500 crore as easily it could have chosen any other listed company with profit making company.
Opportunity Cost Formula Calculator
You can use the following Opportunity Cost Formula Calculator.
|Opportunity Cost Formula =||Return of Next Best Alternative Not Chosen – The Return of the Option Chosen|
|0 – 0 =||0|
Relevance and Use of Opportunity Cost Formula
- Opportunity cost formula is the value of something when a certain course of action is chosen. The benefit or value that was given up can refer to decisions in your personal life, in an organization, in the country or the economy, or in the environment, or on the governmental level.
- These kinds of decisions will typically involve constraints like time, social norms, resources, rules, and physical realities.
- An investor goes completely to cash when he decides that the market is overvalued. This will dramatically reduce their risk at the cost of opportunity of the potential returns that are being invested.
- Another example where student considers the cost of a 4-year university education by calculating total hostel, tuition and other expenses for the period. They could also include the cost of opportunity of missing 4-years of salary in their calculations.
- A headphones manufacturer facing healthy competition from low-cost products with similar designs of their own. They can decide to increase the quality of their build (for e.g. Apple) to make the competition look and feel comparatively cheap. The opportunity cost of the new design of the product will be the increased cost and its inability to compete on price.
- Opportunity costs are truly everywhere and they occur with every decision we make whether it’s big or small.
Opportunity Cost Formula in Excel (with excel template)
Let us now do the same Opportunity Cost Formula example in Excel. This is very simple. You need to provide the two inputs of return of next best alternative not chosen and return of the option chosen. You can easily calculate the ratio in the template provided.
In the below given excel template, we have used the Opportunity cost formula calculation to find the Opportunity cost.
The opportunity cost equation will be –
Recommended Articles –
This has been a guide to Opportunity Cost Formula. Here we discuss its uses along with simple to advanced practical examples to understand Opportunity Cost equation. Here we also provide you with Opportunity Cost formula Calculator with downloadable excel template. You can learn more about Excel Modeling from the following articles –