What is the Accounting Rate of Return?
Accounting Rate of Return refers to the rate of return which is expected to be earned on the investment with respect to investments’ initial cost and is calculated by dividing the Average annual profit (total profit over the investment period divided by number of years) by the average annual profit where average annual profit is calculated by dividing the sum of book value at the beginning and book value at the end by the 2.
Accounting Rate of Return Formula & Calculation (Step by Step)
The ARR formula can be understood in the following steps:
 Step 1 – First figure out the cost of a project that is the initial investment required for the project.
 Step 2 – Now find out the annual revenue that is expected from the project and if it is comparing from the existing option then find out the incremental revenue for the same.
 Step 3 – There shall be annual expenses or incremental expenses in case comparing with the existing option, all should be listed.
 Step 4 – Now for each year deduct the total revenue less total expenses for that year.
 Step 5 – Divide your annual profit arrived in step 4 by a number of years the project is expected to stay or a life of the project.
 Step 6 – Finally, divide the figure arrived in step 5 by the initial investment and resultant would be an annual accounting rate of return for that project.
Examples
Example #1
Kings & Queens started a new project where they are expecting an incremental annual revenue of 50,000 for the next 10 years and estimated incremental cost for earning that revenue is 20,000. The initial investment required to be made for this new project is 200,000. Based on this information you are required to calculate the accounting rate of return.
Solution
Here we are given annual revenue which is 50,000 and expenses as 20,000, hence the net profit will be 30,000 for the next 10 years and that shall be average net profit for the project. The initial investment is 200,000 and therefore we can use below formula to calculate the accounting rate of return:
Therefore, the calculation is as follows,
 = 30,000/200,000
ARR will be –
 ARR = 15%
Example #2
AMC Company has been known for its wellknown reputation of earning higher profits but due to the recent recession it has been hit and the profits have started declining. On investigation, they found out that their machinery is malfunctioning.
They are now looking for new investments in some new techniques so as to replace its current malfunctioning one. The new machine will cost them around $5,200,000, and by investing in this, it would increase their annual revenue or annual sales by $900,000 and the machine would incur annual maintenance of $200,000, specialized staff would be required whose estimated wages would be $300,000 annually. The estimated life of the machine is of 15 years and it shall have $500,000 salvage value.
Based on the below information, you are required to calculate the accounting rate of return (ARR) and advise whether the company should invest in this new technique or not?
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Solution
Here we are given annual revenue which is $900,000 but we need to work out annual expenses as well.
First, we need to calculate the depreciation expenses which can be calculated as per below:
 = 5,200,000 – 500,000/15
 Depreciation = 313,333
Average Expenses
 = 200000+300000+313333
 Average Expenses = 813333
Average Annual Profit
 =900000813333
 Average Annual Profit = 86667
Therefore, the calculation of the accounting rate of return is as follows,
 = 86,667 /5,200,000
ARR will be –
Since the return on dollar investment is positive the firm may consider investing in the same.
Example #3
Jphone is set to launch a new office in a foreign country and will be now assembling the products and sell in that country since they believe that the country has a good demand for its product Jphone.
The initial investment required for this project is 20,00,000. Below is the estimated cost of the project along with revenue and annual expenses.
Based on the below information you are required to calculate the accounting rate of return assuming a 20% tax rate.
Solution
Here we are not given annual revenue directly either directly annual expenses, and hence we shall calculate them per below table.
Average Profit
=400,000250,000
 Average Profit = 75,000
The initial investment is 20,00,000 and therefore we can use below formula to calculate accounting rate of return:
Therefore, the calculation is as follows,
 = 75,000 /20,00,000
ARR will be –
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Relevance and Uses
Accounting Rate of Return formula is used in capital budgeting projects and can be used to filter out when there are multiple projects and only one or few can be selected. This can be used as a general comparison and in no way, it should be construed as a final decisionmaking process, as there are different methods of capital budgeting which helps the management to select the projects those are NPV, profitability Index, etc.
Further management uses a guideline such as if the accounting rate of return is greater than their required rate then the project might be accepted else not.
Recommended Articles
This has been a guide to the Accounting Rate of Return and its definition. Here we learn how to calculate ARR using its formula along with practical examples and downloadable excel template. You can learn more about financing from the following articles –
 Sampling Error Formula
 Calculate Rate of Return on Investment
 Formula of Profitability Index
 Rate of Return
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