List of Assets

Updated on April 4, 2024
Article byWallstreetmojo Team
Edited byWallstreetmojo Team
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

List of Assets in Accounting

The asset consists of the resources owned or controlled by the Corporation, individual, or the government as the result of the events of the past with the motive of generating the cash flows in the future. The list of assets includes operating assets, non-operating assets, current assets, non-current assets, physical assets, and intangible assets.

In this article, we discuss the list of Top 10 Assets in Accounting

#1 – Cash and Cash Equivalents

List of Assets (Cash and Cash Equivalents)

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Source: List of Assets (wallstreetmojo.com)

Every business requires cash or bank balance for its operations. With the cash and cash equivalentsCash And Cash EquivalentsCash and Cash Equivalents are assets that are short-term and highly liquid investments that can be readily converted into cash and have a low risk of price fluctuation.  Cash and paper money, US Treasury bills, undeposited receipts, and Money Market funds are its examples. They are normally found as a line item on the top of the balance sheet asset. read more, one can buy land, buildings, merchandise, etc., and pay for expenses like employees’ salaries, utility bills, etc.

When the inflows are from the loan, it increases the liabilities of the companyLiabilities Of The CompanyAccounting is the process of processing and recording financial information on behalf of a business, and it serves as the foundation for all subsequent financial statements.read more. If the sale of assets, then it decreases the assets. If the inflows are from the profit, it grows the equity value of the company’s shareholders, thereby increasing the interest of the investors in the company. If there is a lack of sufficient funds in the business, then the company has to sell off its assets, which will lead to the risk of becoming bankrupt or discontinuation the operations.

Example: The Inflow of cash to the company is in loans, raising share capitalRaising Share CapitalShare capital refers to the funds raised by an organization by issuing the company's initial public offerings, common shares or preference stocks to the public. It appears as the owner's or shareholders' equity on the corporate balance sheet's liability side.read more, debentures, profits from the business operation, gain on the sale of property or equipment, etc.

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#2 – Short Term Investments

Short Term InvestmentsShort Term InvestmentsShort term investments are those financial instruments which can be easily converted into cash in the next three to twelve months and are classified as current assets on the balance sheet. Most companies opt for such investments and park excess cash due to liquidity and solvency reasons.read more contain those investment assets which are short-term in nature and are liquid investments. These can be in debt or equity marketsEquity MarketsAn equity market is a platform that enables the companies to issue their securities to the investors; it also facilitates the further exchange of these stocks between the buyers and sellers. It comprises various stock exchanges like New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).read more and have a short-term maturity of less than one year.

Financial Asset - Current Assets

source: Microsoft.com

#3 – Inventory

Colgate - Types of Inventory

Inventory is a term used for the goods available for sale in the business. The revenue of the business depends upon the sale of its inventory. Higher the sale, Higher is the revenue generated, and vice versa. Inventories are not long-term assets. They are part of current assets lists. In a manufacturing concern, inventories are further classified as

  • Raw materials: They are unprocessed materials on which the work is yet to be started. For example, to manufacture a t-shirt, the cloth is a raw material.
  • Work-in-progress: When the work on raw material is done partially, and some value addition remains. For example, if the cloth is semi-stitched and still the other side of the t-shirt is yet to be stitched. Then such a semi stitched piece is part of a Work in progress.
  • Finished goods: The products are ready for sale as they have completed production. The final product t-shirt, which is properly stitched, is the finished product.

#4 – Accounts and Notes Receivables

Colgate Net Receivables

It is widespread in the business enterprise to make sales on credit. Due to such sales made on credit, the account receivableAccount ReceivableAccounts receivables is the money owed to a business by clients for which the business has given services or delivered a product but has not yet collected payment. They are categorized as current assets on the balance sheet as the payments expected within a year. read more or trade receivableTrade ReceivableTrade receivable is the amount owed to the business or company by its customers. It is also known as account receivables and is represented as current liabilities in balance sheet.read more is created in the current assets. Accounts receivable represent the money owed to the business enterprise by its debtors.

For example, ABC Company sold goods worth $5,000 to XYZ Company. Now XYZ Company is liable to pay $5,000 to ABC Company. So in the books of ABC Company, XYZ Company is the debtor of $5,000, which is a part of accounts receivable. If the debtorsThe DebtorsA debtor is a borrower who is liable to pay a certain sum to a credit supplier such as a bank, credit card company or goods supplier. The borrower could be an individual like a home loan seeker or a corporate body borrowing funds for business expansion. read more fail to pay the amount, then the amount is written off as bad debts.

Accounts receivable also include bills receivable, which direct the debtors to pay off the amount mentioned within the time specified on the bill. In the above example, if the bill of exchange is issued to XYZ Company, directing him to pay $5,000 within 60 days, instead of reporting XYZ Company as debtors, ABC Company will report $5,000 as bills receivable.

#5 – Prepaid Expenses

Prepaid expensesPrepaid ExpensesPrepaid expenses refer to advance payments made by a firm whose benefits are acquired in the future. Payment for the goods is made in the current accounting period, but the delivery is received in the upcoming accounting period.read more are paid in advance before they are accrued or when the benefit of such payment will be received in the coming financial years. The unexpired portion of the prepaid expense is reported on the asset side of the balance sheet.

Current Assets Example - Prepaid expense

source: Google SEC filings

We note above that Google’s Prepaid revenue share, expenses, and other assets have increased from $3,412 million in December 2014 to $37,20 million in March 2015.

#6 – Land

Land is the tangible long-term asset that the business generally holds for greater than one year. The land is bought for or with the place of business like office, plant, etc., or for housing and commercial developments.

Tangible Assets 1

The land is shown at the purchase price by the company until the same is sold. Any change in value during the holding period is not recorded, and only the gain or loss at the time of land sale is reflected as the increase or decrease in cash or equity account. The balance sheet shows the purchase price until it is sold. There is no wear and tear in the land, so no depreciationDepreciationDepreciation is a systematic allocation method used to account for the costs of any physical or tangible asset throughout its useful life. Its value indicates how much of an asset’s worth has been utilized. Depreciation enables companies to generate revenue from their assets while only charging a fraction of the cost of the asset in use each year. read more benefit is allowed as per the income tax.

#7 -Property, Plant & Equipment

non current assets - PPE

Properties, Plant & Equipment, are tangible assetsTangible AssetsTangible assets are assets with significant value and are available in physical form. It means any asset that can be touched and felt could be labeled a tangible one with a long-term valuation.read more that are physical. They are part of the company’s fixed assets Fixed AssetsFixed assets are assets that are held for the long term and are not expected to be converted into cash in a short period of time. Plant and machinery, land and buildings, furniture, computers, copyright, and vehicles are all examples.read more  because they are used for a long-term period. These assets are reported in the balance sheet at a cost less than the amount of depreciation.  Capital intensiveCapital IntensiveCapital intensive refers to those industries or companies that require significant upfront capital investments in machinery, plant & equipment to produce goods or services in high volumes and maintain higher levels of profit margins and return on investments. Examples include oil & gas, automobiles, real estate, metals & mining.read more industries have a more significant amount of fixed assets, such as manufacturers, oil companies, automobile companies, etc.

Examples of plants & machinery are Machinery, office furniture, Motor Vehicles, etc.

#8 – Intangible Assets

Amortization

source: Google SEC Filings

Valuation of these assets is generally tricky because they are unique and are not readily available for sale. Intangible assets cannot be touched, or we can say they are not physical. These assets carry their importance. For instance, the brand name promotes sales. If one buys a franchisee of KFC, then surely, we will have a good base of the consumer. But if one opens his own business with a new brand name.

The list of intangible assetsList Of Intangible AssetsSome of the most common intangible assets are logos, self-developed software, customer data, franchise agreements, Newspaper Mastheads, license, royalty, Marketing Rights, Import Quotas, Servicing Rights etc.read more is goodwill, trademark, copyrights, patent, brand names, etc.

#9 – Goodwill

GoodwillGoodwillIn accounting, goodwill is an intangible asset that is generated when one company purchases another company for a price that is greater than the sum of the company's net identifiable assets at the time of acquisition. It is determined by subtracting the fair value of the company's net identifiable assets from the total purchase price.read more is recorded on the balance sheet when one company buys another company and pays a premium over the fair market value of the assets.

non current assets - Goodwill

source: Amazon SEC Filings

#10 – Long Term Investments

Long Term Investment assets include those investments in debt or equity which the company intends to hold for a long-term basis.

non current assets - Long Term Investments

source: Alphabet SEC Filings

Alphabet’s non-current asset exampleNon-current Asset ExampleNon-current assets are long-term assets bought to use in the business, and their benefits are likely to accrue for many years. These Assets reveal information about the company's investing activities and can be tangible or intangible. Examples include property, plant, equipment, land & building, bonds and stocks, patents, trademark.read more of long-term investments includes non-marketable investments of $5,183 million and 5,878 million in 2015 and 2016, respectively.

This article has been a guide to the list of Assets in Accounting. Here we discuss the list of Top 10 types of assets, including cash & cash equivalents, prepaid expense, inventory, receivables, PPE, Goodwill, intangible assets, long term investments, etc. You can learn more about accounting with the following articles –

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Comments

  1. Kashinath Basak says

    Deer,
    This content is very useful to me.
    Thanks

    • Dheeraj Vaidya says

      Thanks for your kind words!

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