Financial Statement Analysis
- Ratio Analysis of Financial Statements (Formula, Types, Excel)
- Ratio Analysis Advantages
- Ratio Analysis
- Liquidity Ratios
- Cash Ratio
- Cash Ratio Formula
- Quick Ratio
- Quick Ratio Formula
- Current Ratio
- Current Ratio Formula
- Acid Test Ratio Formula
- Defensive Interval Ratio
- Working Capital Ratio
- Working Capital Formula
- Net Working Capital Formula
- Changes in Net Working Capital
- Cash Flow from Operations Ratio
- Cash Reserve Ratio
- Operating Cycle Formula
- Current Ratio vs Quick Ratio
- Bid Ask Spread
- Liquidity vs Solvency
- Solvency Ratios
- Equity Ratio
- Capital Adequacy Ratio
- Liquidity Risk
- Altman Z Score
- Turnover Ratios
- Inventory Turnover Ratio
- Accounts Receivable Turnover
- Accounts Receivables Turnover Ratio
- Accounts Payable Turnover Ratio
- Days Inventory Outstanding
- Days in Inventory
- Days Sales Outstanding
- Average Collection Period
- Days Payable Outstanding
- Cash Conversion Cycle
- Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC) Formula
- Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio Formula
- Debtor Days Formula
- Working Capital Turnover Ratio
- Profitability Ratios
- Profitability Ratios Formula
- Common Size Income Statement
- Vertical Analysis of Income Statement
- Profit Margin
- Gross Profit Margin Formula
- Gross Profit Percentage
- Operating Profit Margin Formula
- EBIT Margin Formula
- Operating Income Formula
- Net Profit Margin Formula
- EBIDTA Margin
- Degree of Operating Leverage Formula (DOL)
- NOPAT Formula
- Earnings Per Share
- Basic EPS
- Diluted EPS
- Basic EPS vs Diluted EPS
- Return on Equity (ROE)
- Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)
- Return on Invested Capital (ROIC)
- Return on Sales
- ROIC Formula (Return on Invested Capital)
- Return on Investment Formula (ROI)
- ROIC vs ROCE
- ROE vs ROA
- Cash on Cash Return
- Return on Total Assets (ROA)
- Return on Average Capital Employed
- Capital employed Employed
- Return on Average Assets (ROAA)
- Return on Average Equity (ROAE)
- Return on Assets Formula
- Return on Equity Formula
- DuPont Formula
- Net Interest Margin Formula
- Earnings Per Share Formula
- Diluted EPS Formula
- Contribution Margin Formula
- Unit Contribution Margin
- Revenue Per Employee Ratio
- Operating Leverage
- EBIT vs EBITDA
- Capital Gains Yield
- Tax Equivalent Yield
- LTM Revenue
- Operating Expense Ratio Formula
- Overhead Ratio Formula
- Variable Costing Formula
- Capitalization Rate
- Cap Rate Formula
- Comparative Income Statement
- Capacity Utilization Rate Formula
- Total Expense Ratio Formula
- Efficiency Ratios
- Dividend Ratios
- Debt Ratios
- Debt to Equity Ratio
- Debt Coverage Ratio
- Debt Ratio
- Debt to Asset Ratio Formula
- Coverage Ratio
- Coverage Ratio Formula
- Debt to Income Ratio Formula (DTI)
- Capital Gearing Ratio
- Capitalization Ratio
- Interest Coverage Ratio
- Times Interest Earned Ratio
- Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR)
- DSCR Formula (Debt service coverage ratio)
- Financial Leverage Ratio
- Financial Leverage Formula
- Degree of Financial Leverage Formula
- Net Debt Formula
- Leverage Ratios
- Leverage Ratios Formula
- Operating Leverage vs Financial Leverage
- Current Yield
- Debt Yield Ratio
- Solvency Ratio Formula
Return on Average Capital Employed (ROACE) Formula
Why the investors invest in a company? It’s because they want to grow with the company. Return on average capital employed helps them find out whether they should invest in the company or not.
- ROACE formula is not similar as return on capital employed (ROCE). Here we are calculating the return on the average capital employed. That’s why we need to consider both the beginning capital employed and the ending capital employed.
- ROACE formula is a profitability ratio and it helps investors find out how much return they may get from the investments they would make in the company.
Here’s the formula of ROACE –
Also, checkout this detailed article on ROCE
Example of ROACE Formula
Let’s take a simple example to illustrate ROACE formula.
Benefit Inc. has the following information –
- EBIT for the year – $30,000
- The beginning capital employed – $540,000
- The ending capital employed – $450,000
Find out the ROACE.
First, we need to find out the average capital employed.
All we need to do is to do a simple average.
- Average Capital Employed = ($540,000 + $450,000) / 2 = $990,000 / 2 = $495,000.
- Using the return on average capital employed formula, we get –
- ROACE formula= EBIT / Average Capital Employed
- Or, ROACE formula = $30,000 / $495,000 = 6.06%.
Nestle Return on Average Capital Employed
Below is the snapshot of Nestle’s Income Statement and Balance Sheet. For calculating ROACE, we require EBIT or the Operating profit.
Consolidated income statement for the year ended 31st December, 2014 & 2015
source: Nestle Annual Report
Here three figures are important and all of them are highlighted. First is the Operating Profit for 2014 and 2015. And then the total assets and total current liabilities for 2014 and 2015 are needed to be considered.
- Operating Profit of 2015 = CHF 12,408
- Capital Employed (2015) = 123,992 – 33,321 = 90,671
- Capital Employed (2014) = 133,450 – 32,895 = 100,555
- Average Capital Employed = (90,671 + 100,555)/2 = 95,613
- Return on Average Capital Employed = CHF 12,408 / 95,613 = 12.98%
Explanation of Return on Average Capital Employed Formula
In the above ratio, we have two parts.
- The first part is EBIT (earnings before interests and taxes). EBIT is actually operating income. If we look at the income statement of the company, we would see that after deducting the operating expenses from the gross profit, we get operating income or EBIT. You may ask why we are taking EBIT into consideration instead of net income. It’s because operating income directly reflects the income generated from the business; moreover, operating income doesn’t include income from other sources.
- The second part is average capital employed. To find out the capital employed, we can take two approaches.
- The first approach is we can simply add the equity and the long-term debt.
- But there’s a second approach which is better than the first approach. In the second approach, we deduct the current liabilities from the total assets or we can add up equity and the non-current liabilities.
- The second approach is better because it directly shows what has been directly invested in the business (meaning this approach also includes other non-current liabilities other than debt).
Use of Return on Average Capital Employed Formula
- Return on average capital employed formula is best used for capital-intensive industries.
- For companies which need a lot of capital upfront to start and run the business are capital intensive industries. For capital-intensive industries, the ROACE would be lower.
- In other cases (if the company is not capital intensive), the ROACE should be higher.
- An investor should be careful about the capital assets. It may so happen that these capital assets are depreciated and as a result the return on average capital employed has been higher. But it is not because the profit is higher; rather the ROACE is lower.
Return on Average Capital Employed Calculator
You can use the following Return on Average Capital Calculator.
|ROACE Formula =||
Return on Average Capital Employed in Excel (with excel template)
Let us now do the same example above in Excel. This is very simple. First, you need to find out the average capital employed and you need to provide the two inputs of Ebit and Average Capital Employed.
You can easily calculate the ratio in the template provided.
You can download this return on average capital employed template here – Return on Average Capital Employed Excel Template
Return on Average Capital Employed Formula Video
This has been a guide to return on average capital employed formula, its uses along with practical examples. Here we also provide you with ROACE Calculator with downloadable excel template. Learn more from below articles –