Financial Statement Analysis
 Profitability Ratios
 Profitability Ratios Formula
 Common Size Income Statement
 Vertical Analysis of Income Statement
 Profit Margin
 Profit Margin Formula
 Profit Percentage Formula
 Profit Formula
 Gross Profit Margin Formula
 Gross Profit Percentage
 Operating Profit Margin Formula
 EBIT Margin Formula
 Operating Income Formula
 Net Profit Margin Formula
 EBITDA Margin
 Degree of Operating Leverage Formula (DOL)
 NOPAT Formula
 OIBDA
 Earnings Per Share
 Basic EPS
 Diluted EPS
 Basic EPS vs Diluted EPS
 Return on Equity (ROE)
 Return on Equity Ratio
 Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)
 ROCE Formula (Return on Capital Employed)
 Return on Invested Capital (ROIC)
 Return On Investment (ROI)
 Rate of Return on Investment
 Return on Sales
 ROIC Formula (Return on Invested Capital)
 Return on Investment Formula (ROI)
 ROIC vs ROCE
 ROE vs ROA
 CFROI
 Cash on Cash Return
 Return on Total Assets (ROA)
 Return on Total Assets Formula
 Return on Average Capital Employed
 Capital employed Employed
 Return on Average Assets (ROAA)
 Return on Average Equity (ROAE)
 Return on Assets Formula
 Return on Equity Formula
 DuPont Formula
 Net Interest Margin Formula
 Earnings Per Share Formula
 Diluted EPS Formula
 Contribution Margin Formula
 Unit Contribution Margin
 Revenue Per Employee Ratio
 Operating Leverage
 EBIT vs EBITDA
 EBITDAR
 Capital Gains Yield
 Tax Equivalent Yield
 LTM Revenue
 Operating Expense Ratio Formula
 Overhead Ratio Formula
 Variable Costing Formula
 Capitalization Rate
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 Comparative Income Statement
 Capacity Utilization Rate Formula
 Total Expense Ratio Formula
 Markup
 Markup Percentage Formula
 Ratio Analysis (17+)
 Liquidity Ratios (29+)
 Turnover Ratios (17+)
 Efficiency Ratios (7+)
 Dividend Ratios (9+)
 Debt Ratios (26+)
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Return on Average Capital Employed (ROACE) Formula
Why the investors invest in a company? It’s because they want to grow with the company. Return on average capital employed helps them find out whether they should invest in the company or not.
 ROACE formula is not similar as return on capital employed (ROCE). Here we are calculating the return on the average capital employed. That’s why we need to consider both the beginning capital employed and the ending capital employed.
 ROACE formula is a profitability ratio and it helps investors find out how much return they may get from the investments they would make in the company.
Here’s the formula of ROACE –
Also, checkout this detailed article on ROCE
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Example of ROACE Formula
Let’s take a simple example to illustrate ROACE formula.
Benefit Inc. has the following information –
 EBIT for the year – $30,000
 The beginning capital employed – $540,000
 The ending capital employed – $450,000
Find out the ROACE.
First, we need to find out the average capital employed.
All we need to do is to do a simple average.
4.9 (1,067 ratings)
 Average Capital Employed = ($540,000 + $450,000) / 2 = $990,000 / 2 = $495,000.
 Using the return on average capital employed formula, we get –
 ROACE formula= EBIT / Average Capital Employed
 Or, ROACE formula = $30,000 / $495,000 = 6.06%.
Nestle Return on Average Capital Employed
Below is the snapshot of Nestle’s Income Statement and Balance Sheet. For calculating ROACE, we require EBIT or the Operating profit.
Consolidated income statement for the year ended 31^{st} December, 2014 & 2015
source: Nestle Annual Report
Here three figures are important and all of them are highlighted. First is the Operating Profit for 2014 and 2015. And then the total assets and total current liabilities for 2014 and 2015 are needed to be considered.
 Operating Profit of 2015 = CHF 12,408
 Capital Employed (2015) = 123,992 – 33,321 = 90,671
 Capital Employed (2014) = 133,450 – 32,895 = 100,555
 Average Capital Employed = (90,671 + 100,555)/2 = 95,613
 Return on Average Capital Employed = CHF 12,408 / 95,613 = 12.98%
Explanation of Return on Average Capital Employed Formula
In the above ratio, we have two parts.
 The first part is EBIT (earnings before interests and taxes). EBIT is actually operating income. If we look at the income statement of the company, we would see that after deducting the operating expenses from the gross profit, we get operating income or EBIT. You may ask why we are taking EBIT into consideration instead of net income. It’s because operating income directly reflects the income generated from the business; moreover, operating income doesn’t include income from other sources.
 The second part is average capital employed. To find out the capital employed, we can take two approaches.
 The first approach is we can simply add the equity and the longterm debt.
 But there’s a second approach which is better than the first approach. In the second approach, we deduct the current liabilities from the total assets or we can add up equity and the noncurrent liabilities.
 The second approach is better because it directly shows what has been directly invested in the business (meaning this approach also includes other noncurrent liabilities other than debt).
Use of Return on Average Capital Employed Formula
 Return on average capital employed formula is best used for capitalintensive industries.
 For companies which need a lot of capital upfront to start and run the business are capital intensive industries. For capitalintensive industries, the ROACE would be lower.
 In other cases (if the company is not capital intensive), the ROACE should be higher.
 An investor should be careful about the capital assets. It may so happen that these capital assets are depreciated and as a result the return on average capital employed has been higher. But it is not because the profit is higher; rather the ROACE is lower.
Return on Average Capital Employed Calculator
You can use the following Return on Average Capital Calculator.
EBIT  
Average Capital Employed  
ROACE Formula  
ROACE Formula = 


Return on Average Capital Employed in Excel (with excel template)
Let us now do the same example above in Excel. This is very simple. First, you need to find out the average capital employed and you need to provide the two inputs of Ebit and Average Capital Employed.
You can easily calculate the ratio in the template provided.
You can download this return on average capital employed template here – Return on Average Capital Employed Excel Template
Return on Average Capital Employed Formula Video
Recommended Articles
This has been a guide to return on average capital employed formula, its uses along with practical examples. Here we also provide you with ROACE Calculator with downloadable excel template. Learn more from below articles –