ROIC Formula

What is ROIC Formula?

ROIC Formula (Return on Invested Capital) is considered as profitability and a performance ratio and is calculated based on the total cost and the return generated, returns are the total net operating profit after tax while investments are calculated by subtracting all the current liabilities from its assets.

The formula is represented as below,

ROIC Formula = Net Operating Profit after Tax / Total Invested Capital

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Source: ROIC Formula (



ROIC calculation is done by using the Net Operating Profit. Once the Operating Profit is calculated, we deduct Tax from the same, as we need Net Profit. It is the “Return” that the company has generated from all the capital it has used up during the period.

The denominator is the total invested capital by the company during that particular period. It may include capital raised from the market plus the company’s equity.

In this ratio,  we are trying to determine the percentage of conversion of capital into returns by the company. Hence, this is used as a profitability ratioProfitability RatioProfitability ratios help in evaluating the ability of a company to generate income against the expenses. These ratios represent the financial viability of the company in various more.

Net Operating Profit after Tax

It is the profit generated after deducting all possible deductions from the reported sales and profit amount. However, we mention only Tax in the formula as a deduction because; Tax is an essential component in calculating profits. It is an external component that is paid to the government of the Land. Actual profit has arrived only after Taxes are deducted. Again, if the company is listed in markets, we also need to deduct any dividends being paid out from Net Profit to arrive at this numerator.

Total Invested Capital

It is the total amount invested by the company during that particular period. This amount includes its equity plus the debts it has raised from markets (if any).

Example of ROIC Formula (with Excel Template)

Let’s see some simple to an advanced example to understand it better.

You can download this ROIC Formula Excel Template here – ROIC Formula Excel Template

Example #1

Company ABC manufactures Copper wires. In the year 2016, its net profits were $500,000. The company management decided to enhance sales and thus profits as an objective for the year 2017. For doing this, they raised capital in the form of stocks amounting to $2.5M. The retained earningsRetained EarningsRetained Earnings are defined as the cumulative earnings earned by the company till the date after adjusting for the distribution of the dividend or the other distributions to the investors of the company. It is shown as the part of owner’s equity in the liability side of the balance sheet of the more to be used for 2017 were $100,000. At the end of 2017, they made a Net profit (after tax deductions) of $575,000 and paid $100,000 as dividends to stockholders. We need to do the calculation of ROIC for 2017.

  • Net Profit after Tax: $575,000
  • Dividends paid out: $100,000
  • Total Invested Capital: $2,500,000 + $100,000 = $2,600,000

In the below-given template is the data of Company ABC for the ROIC calculation.

Roic Formula example 1

So, the Calculation of ROIC of Company ABC will be as follows:

Return on Invested Capital Formula = Net Operating Profit after Tax -Dividends / Total Invested Capital

ROIC =($575,000  – $100,000)

Roic Formula example 1.1png

So, Return on Invested Capital will be:

Roic Formula example 1.2png

Return on Invested Capital of Company ABC =18.3%

Analysis: The company has a good return capacity. It means to say that if we invest 2.5M in the company, it generates $575K of profit after all tax deductions, with a capacity to repay $100,000 to its stockholdersStockholdersA stockholder is a person, company, or institution who owns one or more shares of a company. They are the company's owners, but their liability is limited to the value of their more as well.

Example #2

Best Paints Ltd. has reported its net profit after taxes as $100,000 in 2017. The total invested capital for the firm is $2,000,000, wherein the total debt component is $800,000, and the rest is equity. ROIC calculation for Best Paints and analyze it for investing decisions.

In the below-given table is the data of Best Paints Ltd for calculation of  ROIC.

Roic Formula example 2

Therefore, the Calculation of ROIC of Best Paints Ltd will be as follows,

ROIC =  $100,000 /$2,000,000

Roic Formula example 2.1png

So, Return on Invested CapitalReturn On Invested CapitalReturn on Invested Capital (ROIC) is a profitability ratio that shows how a company uses its invested capital, such as equity and debt, to generate profit. The reason this ratio is so crucial for investors before making an investment is that it helps them decide which firm to invest more of Best Paints Ltd will be:

Roic Formula example 2.2png

ROIC of Best Paints Ltd = 5.0%

Analysis: ROIC for the firm is only 5%. However, it should be noted that the total invested capital of $2M for the year, the major component is equity ($1.2M), with a debt of only $0.8M. Hence, the company would have to repay more to the investors than the debt holders.

Example #3

Triumph Solutions makes a net profit of $500,000 in 2015. The total invested capital is $1,800,000 for the year. The legal tax rate is 40%. Calculate the ROIC for Triumph Solutions for 2015.

In the below-given table is the data of Triumph Solutions for calculation of  ROIC.

  • Net Profit (before taxes): $500,000
  • Total invested capital: $1,800,000
  • Tax Rate: 40%
Roic Formula example 3

Therefore, Calculation of ROIC of Triumph Solutions will be as follows,

ROIC=$500,000 (1-0.4) / $1,800,000

Roic Formula example 3.1png

So, Return on Invested Capital of Triumph Solutions will be:

Roic Formula example 3.2png

ROIC of Triumph Solutions =16.67%

ROIC Calculator

Net Operating Profit After Tax
Total Invested Capital
ROIC Formula

ROIC Formula =
Net Operating Profit After Tax
Total Invested Capital
= 0

Relevance and Uses

ROIC is majorly used while analysts are working on company analysis. Majorly it is relevant for the following uses:


ROIC  is a measure of the income generated by a company from its investments. The better the ratio, the better and more profitable it is to invest in the company. However, it is essential to understand that the denominator used is “total invested capitalInvested CapitalInvested Capital is the total money that a firm raises by issuing debt to bond holders and securities to equity shareholders. Invested Capital Formula = Total Debt (Including Capital lease) + Total Equity & Equivalent Equity Investments + Non-Operating Cash read more,” and not particularly debt or equity. Hence, analyzing the structure of its components would give a much better understanding to investors and analysts. A higher debt component may also mean that the company is using up its debt to generate returns – it may require to repay a higher component of returns to its loans.

Thus, a complete and true understanding of the company’s returns would only be made after each component of the numerator and denominator are properly analyzed.

Recommended Articles

This article has been a guide to ROIC Formula. Here we discuss the formula to calculate Return on Invested Capital using practical examples and downloadable excel templates. You may learn more about Financial Analysis from the following articles –

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