Financial Statement Analysis

- Profitability Ratios
- Profitability Ratios Formula
- Common Size Income Statement
- Vertical Analysis of Income Statement
- Profit Margin
- Profit Margin Formula
- Profit Percentage Formula
- Profit Formula
- Gross Profit Margin Formula
- Gross Profit Percentage
- Operating Profit Margin Formula
- EBIT Margin Formula
- Operating Income Formula
- Net Profit Margin Formula
- EBITDA Margin
- Degree of Operating Leverage Formula (DOL)
- NOPAT Formula
- OIBDA
- Earnings Per Share
- Basic EPS
- Diluted EPS
- Basic EPS vs Diluted EPS
- Return on Equity (ROE)
- Return on Equity Ratio
- Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)
- ROCE Formula (Return on Capital Employed)
- Return on Invested Capital (ROIC)
- Return On Investment (ROI)
- Rate of Return on Investment
- Return on Sales
- ROIC Formula (Return on Invested Capital)
- Return on Investment Formula (ROI)
- ROIC vs ROCE
- ROE vs ROA
- CFROI
- Cash on Cash Return
- Return on Total Assets (ROA)
- Return on Total Assets Formula
- Return on Average Capital Employed
- Capital employed Employed
- Return on Average Assets (ROAA)
- Return on Average Equity (ROAE)
- Return on Assets Formula
- Return on Equity Formula
- DuPont Formula
- Net Interest Margin Formula
- Earnings Per Share Formula
- Diluted EPS Formula
- Contribution Margin Formula
- Unit Contribution Margin
- Revenue Per Employee Ratio
- Operating Leverage
- EBIT vs EBITDA
- EBITDAR
- Capital Gains Yield
- Tax Equivalent Yield
- LTM Revenue
- Operating Expense Ratio Formula
- Overhead Ratio Formula
- Variable Costing Formula
- Capitalization Rate
- Cap Rate Formula
- Comparative Income Statement
- Capacity Utilization Rate Formula
- Total Expense Ratio Formula
- Markup
- Markup Percentage Formula

- Ratio Analysis (17+)
- Liquidity Ratios (29+)
- Turnover Ratios (17+)
- Efficiency Ratios (7+)
- Dividend Ratios (9+)
- Debt Ratios (26+)

Related Courses

**Profit Formula Calculation (Table of Contents)**

## What is Profit Formula?

Profit Formula calculates the company the net gains or loss incurred by the company for any given period. Profit is the key indicator of the performance of any company. Profit is considered as the key component of Operating margin, Earning per share, profitability ratios, etc. There are various statutory guidelines and local GAAPs, which all the corporations have to follow while calculating the profits for any given period. This not only ensures the transparency but also allows the better comparability in the results of the company.

Profit equation is the walkthrough through which any non-professionals can understand how the company has arrived at a profit after tax (PAT), profit before tax (PBT), Earnings before interest tax depreciation and amortization (EBITDA).

The formula for profit is:

**Profit Attributable to Shareholders =**

**Revenue – Cost of Revenue – Selling and Maintenance Expense – General and Administration Expense – Depreciation and Amortization – Research and Development Expense + Other Income – Tax Provision +/- Extraordinary Item not Pertaining to Ordinary Business**

### Explanation of Profit Formula

Below is the detailed explanation of the steps of Profit equation:

**Step 1:** Determine the total revenue of the company from the core business activity.

**Step 2: **Then, from revenue, deduct the total cost of revenue incurred for earning the gross revenue of the company; this will help in arriving at gross profit and gross margin. Cost of revenue includes Salary cost, finance expense, cost of inventory and such expense directly related to the business.

**Step 3: **From gross profit, deduct below expense:

- Selling and maintenance expense
- General and Administration expense
- Depreciation and Amortization
- Research and Development Expense.

This will give the Operating income of the company.

**Step 4: **To Operating income, Add Other income like interest, profit on the sale of the investment, etc, to arrive at Profit before taxes.

**Step 5: **From Profit before tax, deduct tax provision for the given period. This will give profit after tax.

**Step 6: **Every business will have few unwanted gain or losses incurred during the financial year, which are not ordinary in nature like the bankruptcy of the debtor, winning/losing of any legal suit, etc. Adjust such extraordinary item to Profit after tax, which will provide income attributable to shareholders.

### Examples of Profit Formula (with Excel Template)

Let’s see some simple to advanced examples of the profit equation to understand it better.

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#### Profit Example #1 – Microsoft Incorporation

Below are the various incomes and expense of Microsoft Inc., calculate profit attributable to the shareholders:

**Solution:**

As per the given profit equation, Operating Income can be derived as follows:

Operating Income = 12789 – 1144 – 1200 – 452 -306

**Operating Income = 9687**

Calculation of profit income attributable to shareholders can be done as follows:

Income Attributable to Shareholders = 9687 + 122 + 219

Income Attributable to Shareholders will be –

**Income Attributable to Shareholders = 10028**

Thus, Microsoft Inc has earned profit from operating income of $ 9687million dollar for the given period and $ 10,028 Million of profit attributable to shareholders.

#### Profit Example #2 – Alphabet Inc

Below are the particulars of Alphabet Inc., for the financial year:

Bifurcate the expense under different heads and calculate the profit attributable to shareholders.

**Solution:**

As per the given profit equation, Operating Income can be derived as follows:

Operating Income = 15619 – 1434 – 1918 – 403 – 1691 – 1504 – 566 – 4012 – 4162 – 383

** Operating Income = -454 **

Calculation of profit loss attributable to shareholders can be done as follows:

Loss Attributable to Shareholders = -454 + 274 + 152

Loss Attributable to Shareholders will be –

**Loss Attributable to Shareholders = -28**

##### Explanation:

All the expense are bifurcated into various heads if expense based on their nature. While bifurcating the expense, one has to keep in mind whether the expense is directly related to operations or not. If it is directly related to operations, then it will form part of the cost of revenue. Otherwise, It will form part of either Selling and maintenance, General & Administration expense, etc, which are considered as below the line expense.

Thus, Alphabet Inc has incurred a loss from operations of $ 454 million dollars for the given period and loss of $ 28 Million dollars for the given financial year.

#### Profit Example #3 – Apple Inc

Below are the particulars of Apple Inc., for the financial year:

Bifurcate the expense under different heads and calculate the profit attributable to shareholders.

**Solution**

As per the given formula, Operating Income can be derived as follows:

Operating Income = 17832 – 1738 – 2324 – 2049 – 1823 – 686 – 22 – 5044 – 488

**Operating Income = 3658**

Calculation of profit income attributable to shareholders can be done as follows:

Income Attributable to Shareholders = 3631 + 111 – 1863

Income Attributable to Shareholders will be –

**Income Attributable to Shareholders = 1879**

##### Explanation:

All the expense are bifurcated into various heads if expense based on their nature. While bifurcating the expense, one has to keep in mind whether the expense is directly related to operations or not. If it is directly related to operations, then it will form part of the cost of revenue. Otherwise, It will form part of either Selling and maintenance, General & Administration expense, etc, which are considered as below the line expense.

Thus, Apple Inc has earned profit from operations of $ 3658 million dollars for the given period and profit of $ 1879 Million dollars for the given financial year.

#### Profit Example #4 – Amazon.in

Below are the particulars of Amazon.in., for the financial year:

Bifurcate the expense under different heads and calculate the profit attributable to shareholders.

**Solution**

As per the given formula, Operating Income can be derived as follows:

Operating Income = 9179 – 869 – 911 – 2522 – 1162 – 1024 -2372

**Operating Income = 319**

Calculation of profit income attributable to shareholders can be done as follows:

Income Attributable to Shareholders = 140 + 55 – 931 + 953

Income Attributable to Shareholders will be –

**Income Attributable to Shareholders = 217**

##### Explanation:

All the expense are bifurcated into various heads if expense based on their nature. While bifurcating the expense, one has to keep in mind whether the expense is directly related to operations or not. If it is directly related to operations, then it will form part of the cost of revenue. Otherwise, It will form part of either Selling and maintenance, General & Administration expense, etc, which are considered as below the line expense.

Thus, Amazon.in, has earned profit from operations of $ 319 million dollars for the given period and profit of $ 217 Million dollars for the given financial year.

### Relevance and Uses

To determine the correct profit formula is of utmost importance as:

- Profit is considered a key indicator of Operating margin.
- Profit is considered as one of the key measuring areas in competitor analysis.
- Borrowings are sanctioned based on the operating profitability of the company.
- The profit helps in determining the foreseeable future of the company.
- Profit is important to take the strategic decision like to continue the line of business or to diversify or divest the business segment.

### Conclusion

Profit formula plays a major role in any income statement, as this will form the base to determine the operational matrix of the company.

### Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Profit Formula. Here we discuss the calculation of profit along with practical examples and downloadable excel template. You can learn more about financing from the following articles –