Financial Statement Analysis
- Ratio Analysis of Financial Statements (Formula, Types, Excel)
- Ratio Analysis Advantages
- Ratio Analysis
- Liquidity Ratios
- Cash Ratio
- Quick Ratio
- Quick Ratio Formula
- Current Ratio
- Current Ratio Formula
- Acid Test Ratio Formula
- Defensive Interval Ratio
- Working Capital Ratio
- Working Capital Formula
- Net Working Capital Formula
- Current Ratio vs Quick Ratio
- Bid Ask Spread
- Liquidity vs Solvency
- Liquidity Risk
- Altman Z Score
- Turnover Ratios
- Profitability Ratios
- Profit Margin
- Gross Profit Margin Formula
- Operating Profit Margin Formula
- Net Profit Margin Formula
- EBIDTA Margin
- Earnings Per Share
- Basic EPS
- Diluted EPS
- Basic EPS vs Diluted EPS
- Return on Equity (ROE)
- Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)
- Return on Invested Capital (ROIC)
- ROIC vs ROCE
- Return on Total Assets (ROA)
- Return on Average Capital Employed
- Capital employed Employed
- Return on Average Assets (ROAA)
- Return on Average Equity (ROAE)
- Return on Assets Formula
- Return on Equity Formula
- DuPont Formula
- Net Interest Margin Formula
- Earnings Per Share Formula
- Diluted EPS Formula
- Contribution Margin Formula
- Revenue Per Employee Ratio
- Operating Leverage
- EBIT vs EBITDA
- Capital Gains Yield
- Tax Equivalent Yield
- LTM Revenue
- Operating Expense Ratio Formula
- Overhead Ratio Formula
- Capitalization Rate
- Comparative Income Statement
- Capacity Utilization Rate Formula
- Total Expense Ratio Formula
- Efficiency Ratios
- Dividend Ratios
- Debt Ratios
- Debt to Equity Ratio
- Debt Coverage Ratio
- Debt Ratio
- Debt to Income Ratio Formula (DTI)
- Capital Gearing Ratio
- Capitalization Ratio
- Interest Coverage Ratio
- Times Interest Earned Ratio
- Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR)
- Financial Leverage Ratio
- Net Debt Formula
- Leverage Ratios
- Operating Leverage vs Financial Leverage
- Current Yield
- Debt Yield Ratio
What is EBITDAR?
EBITDAR is Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, Amortisation and Rent/Restructuring. It is used to measure the financial performance of the companies where the rent expense is very high.
- This is a crucial factor in the valuation of businesses like shipping and airline companies those need to pay huge rent amounts every year.
- While determining a value of a kind of business, analysts mostly consider EBITDAR over EBITDA to calculate pure operating cash flows, as it computes the operating income before deducting interest, taxes, depreciation & amortization as well as rent expenses which are substantial expenditure items in Profit & Loss Statement of these companies.
- It also denotes the ability of the business to generate profits, even after spending huge rent or restructuring cost as a part of their business operations.
An EBITDAR is a calculation of earnings of the company before netting interest, taxes and depreciation & amortization and rent/restructuring cost of the company and it is used to determine its actual operating performances without taking effects of its financial and investment decisions. It excludes all non-cash expenses, non-operating and non-recurring expenditures.
- Unlike EBIT, it is a non-GAAP measure and does not mention in either classified or non-classified financial statements of the company. It’s mostly used to differentiate two companies within the same industry those are having different assets structures.
- While calculating Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, Amortisation and Rent the purpose behind adding back Rent is that Rent is treated as Sunk Cost which means the cost is already incurred or certain to have occurred in financial statements of the company irrespective of its performance.
- “R” stands for rent or restructuring cost. In the industries like Hospital, Hotels, Airlines, Shipping, Wholesale Trade etc. the rent cost is very significant and many companies need to spend lots of money in the form of rent just to occupy the operating space for conducting their businesses at the desired location.
- While valuing a target company from one of these industries, the analyst must consider the total rent cost paid by the company during a particular period and add it back in the EBITDA to determine the operating potential of the business. Without considering the adjustment of Rent cost, the company might have poor operating profits, due to large rent expenditures, but it means it may have very good operations that can generate handsome money from its core operating performances. By neglecting this factor the probabilities of missing a good target option will be increased.
- Just like above, restructuring cost is also to be added in Net Profits of the company along with other components while calculating the operating profits of one of these target companies, because restructuring of land or building is a non-recurring cost and shall not be incurred again at least in next 3 to 5 years. Instead, it can be treated as a potential investment within the business that will help to generate additional revenue and profits to the company. It helps to evaluate the long-term operating efficiencies of these businesses. Hence, it is the most appropriate practice among the technicians to estimate the EBITDAR while measuring the valuation of companies and thereafter compare it with other potential target companies.
Below is the EBITDAR example of Pinnacle Entertainment.
We note that Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, Amortisation and Rent for Pinnacle entertainment has increased over the years and was at $654.5 million in 2016 (consolidated level).
As we already discussed, the analyst uses this as an operating tool and calculate the EBITDAR by adding interest, taxes, depreciation & amortization and rent/restructuring expenses in a company’s net income. It means it considers the outcome of operating decisions only and excludes the impact of other non-operating as well as non-recurring decisions.
Below is the EBITDAR formula
For example, consider a hypothetical Shipping company having the following information;
- Net Income – $1000 Millions
- Interest – $300 Millions
- Taxes – $225 Millions
- Depreciation – $150 Millions
- Amortisation – $75 Millions and
- Rent – $130 Millions
We can calculate EBITDAR with the help of the above EBITDAR formula
- EBITDAR formula= Net Income + Interest + Taxes + Depreciation + Amortisation + Rent
- = 1000 + 300 + 225 + 150 + 75 + 130 = $1880 Millions
EBIT, EBITDA, EBITDAR & EBITDARM
These are the key financial metrics used by the analysts as per their object of analysis and type of the industries. We will be going to learn about them one by one.
#1 – EBIT
Earnings before Interest and Taxes are the most common term used to define operating performances of the company in any industry. It estimates how much operating cash a business can generate in a financial year just by netting operating cash outflows from operating cash inflows. One can calculate the same by simply adding back interest and tax expenses in the net profit of the company.
#2 – EBITDA
Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation & Amortisation is used to estimate an actual operating cash flow a company generates after deducting all operating cash outflows and depreciation and amortization as well. It doesn’t consider the non-cash items as an actual cash outflow, hence added in EBIT to determine the operating results of the company. We have to add depreciation and amortization cost in EBIT of the company.
#3 – EBITDAR
Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation & Amortisation, and Rent/Restructuring Cost are little different from EBITDA as it also adds back rent or restructuring cost in Net Income along with other components. It is necessary to calculate EBITDAR for every industry in which rent or restructuring cost is very high so that financial performances of a company can be measured with the utmost accuracy.
#4 – EBITDARM
Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation & Amortisation, Rent/Restructuring Cost and Management Fees is one of the financial measures which treat Management Fees as a non-recurring item and should not be considered as operating expense in some sort of industries like NBFC’s. Management Fees usually paid by the companies to Investment Bankers, Fund Managers to manage their portfolio and make efficient investment strategies for a company in a professional way. This fee is calculated on Assets under Management (AUM) and it may range between 0.50% – 2.00% on AUM.
This is an industry-specific measurement tool which is used to do the precise valuation of companies between the same industry but having substantial rent or restricting component in its cost structure. Operating efficiency and profitability of Airlines, Hospitality, Shipping, and Wholesale Trade industries can be determined by calculating EBITDAR as a part of their investment analysis. A positive or negative EBITDAR is necessary to know the operating soundness of those businesses. This is also used to identify and implement operational changes if any required before taking any strategic or tactical decision.
This has been a guide to what is EBITDAR and its meaning and why it is important for shipping and airline companies. Also, we take EBITDAR Calculations along with practical examples. In addition, we discuss the differences between EBIT, EBITDA, EBITDAR, and EBITDARM. You may learn more about Financial Analysis from the following articles –