Balance Sheet Ratios

What is the Balance Sheet Ratio Analysis?

Balance sheet ratio indicates relationship between two items of balance sheet or analysis of balance sheet items to interpret company’s results on quantitative basis and following balance sheet ratios are financial ratio which include debt to equity ratio, liquidity ratios which include cash ratio, current ratio, quick ratio and efficiency ratios which include account receivable turnover, account payable turnover, inventory turnover ratio.

These financial ratios are used to assess the expected returns, the risk associated, financial stability, etc., and majorly include balance sheet items like assets, liability, shareholders equity, etc.

Balance Sheet Ratios

Types of Balance Sheet Ratio

It can be classified into the following categories:

#1 – Efficiency Ratios

This type of Balance Sheet Ratio Analysis, i.e., efficiency ratio, is used to analyze how efficiently a company is utilizing its assets. It indicates the overall operational performance of the company.

Various efficiency ratios are as follows:

 Inventory Turnover Ratio

Inventory Turnover

It is calculated by dividing the cost of goods sold by average inventory available with the company on the balance sheet date.

Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold/ Average inventory.

The inventory turnover ratio indicates how fast a company’s inventory is selling. In other words, they show how many times in a year company has sold its complete inventory and replenished it in a year. A low inventory turnover ratio indicates lower sales or that the company is holding up stocks of goods that are not in demand in the market. However, a high inventory turnover ratio doesn’t necessarily indicate the healthy position of the company unless it is coupled with good sales figures.

Receivable Turnover Ratio

Accounts Receivables Turnover

The receivable turnover ratio indicates how fast a company can recover its receivables from its customers. It is calculated as mentioned below:

Receivable Turnover = Net Sales / Average Receivables

A high receivable turnover ratio indicates that the money expected to be received by the company from its customers is stuck in credit, i.e., customers are struggling to pay the bills. Though receivable turnover needs to be analyzed in comparison to the peers of the company in the same industry since the credit period given to customers varies from industry to industry. For example, cash and carry business will always have a less credit period in comparison to the manufacturing industry

Payables Turnover Ratio

Payables Turnover

Payables Turnover Ratio indicates how fast the company is able to pay to its creditors. It is calculated by dividing purchases by creditors as on the balance sheet date.

Payables Turnover = Purchases / Creditors outstanding

It indicates whether a company is paying its suppliers on time or not. Further, a low payables turnover indicates that the company is not utilizing the benefits it might get by the credit period extended to them by the suppliers. Similar to the account receivable turnover ratio, the Payables ratio also needs to be analyzed basis the industry the company operates in.

Asset Turnover Ratio

Balance Sheet Ratios asset turnover ratio

Asset Turnover Ratio is calculated simply by dividing the sales with the total assets of the company. It indicates how efficiently the company utilizes its assets to generate revenue.

Asset Turnover = Net Sales / Total assets

Net Working Capital Turnover Ratio

Balance Sheet Ratios - net working capital

The net working Capital Ratio indicates whether the working capital of the company has been effectively utilized to generate sales.

Net Working Capital = Net Sales/ Net Working Capital

#2 – Liquidity Ratio

This type of Balance Sheet Ratio analysis is also known as banker’s ratio. It indicates the firm’s ability to meet its short-term obligations. The liquidity ratio is industry dependent and varies majorly from industry to industry.

Current Ratio

Balance Sheet Ratios - Current Ratio

The Current Ratio indicates how readily a company can liquidate its current assets to pay off its current liabilities. It is calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities.

Current Ratio = Current Assets/Current Liabilities

The current ratio ideally should be above 1.33 times. CR less than 1 may indicate that the company is raising short term funds from the market to create long term assets, thus making the diversion of funds.

Quick Ratio

Balance Sheet Ratios - quick ratio

The Quick Ratio is also known as the acid test ratio. It is a more stringent way of analyzing the liquidity of a company. It is calculated as under:

Quick Ratio = (Current Assets – Inventory)

Inventory is a major part of the current assets of the company; however, at the time of distress, it might not be easily convertible to cash and hence cannot be used for instant debt payor recovery.

Cash Ratio

Balance Sheet Ratios

The most conservative liquidity ratio is the cash ratio. Cash is the most liquid asset on the balance sheet of the firm, and hence cash ratio indicates what is the percentage to which the cash present with the company covers the short obligations of the company. It is usually used for a company in distress.

Cash ratio = Cash + Marketable Securities/Current

 #3 – Solvency Ratio

This type of Balance Sheet Ratio, i.e., Solvency ratio, measures a company’s ability to repay its debt obligations. It indicates whether the company is churning enough cash flow to meet its short term and long-term debt obligation.

The types of Solvency Ratio are as follows,

Debt to Equity Ratio

Pepsi Debt to Equity Ratio

The Debt to Equity Ratio is also called financial gearing. It indicates how much equity is available to cover debt obligations.

Debt to Equity = Total long-term debt/ Shareholders fund

Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR)

DSCR calculations - Colgate Ratio Analysis

DSCR Ratio indicates the ability of a company to repay its debt obligations.

DSCR = (Profit after tax + Depreciation + Interest) / (Interest Payments+ Principal Payments + Lease Payments)

Debt to Asset Ratio

Debt to Asset Ratio Formula

Debt to Asset is used to analyze what portion of assets of the firm are funded by debt. A high number indicates high financial leverage

Debt to Asset = Total Assets/ Total debt

#4 – Profitability Ratios

These balance sheet ratios measure the overall profitability of the business. The following are the types of Profitability Ratios.

Return on Asset


Return on Asset measures the efficiency with which total assets of the company are able to generate a net profit. A high ratio value indicates the efficient utilization of the company’s assets.

Debt to Asset = Total Assets/ Total debt

Return on Equity

Analysis Colgate

Return on Equity is a measure of returns that the company is generating vis-à-vis the equity invested in the firm.

ROE = Net Income/ Shareholder’s Equity

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Balance Sheet Ratio Analysis. Here we discuss the top 4 types of Balance Sheet Ratios like Efficiency ratios, Liquidity Ratio, Solvency Ratio, & Profitability Ratios along with formulas and classifications. You can learn more about accounting from the following articles –

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