What is the Balance Sheet Analysis?
Balance sheet analysis is the analysis of the assets, liabilities and owner’s capital of the company by the different stakeholders for the purpose of getting the correct financial position of the business at a particular point in time.
It is a complete analysis of items on the balance sheet at the various intervals of time, like quarterly, annually, and is used by shareholders, investors, and institutions to understand the company’s detailed financial position. The following Balance Sheet Analysis provides an outline of the most common used by investors and financial analysts to analyze a company. It is impossible to provide a complete set of analysis that addresses every variation in every situation since there are thousands of variables.
In this article, we have divided our analysis into two parts –
- #1 -Analysis of Assets
- #2 – Analysis of Liabilities
Let us discuss each one of them in detail –
#1 – How to do Analysis of Assets in the Balance Sheet?
Assets include fixed assets or Non-current assets and current assets.
A) Non-Current Asset
Non-current assetsNon-current AssetsNon-current assets are long-term assets bought to use in the business, and their benefits are likely to accrue for many years. These Assets reveal information about the company's investing activities and can be tangible or intangible. Examples include property, plant, equipment, land & building, bonds and stocks, patents, trademark. include the items of fixed assets like property plant & equipment (PPE). The analyses of fixed assets involve not only the calculation of the assets’ earning potential and its use but also the calculation of its useful life. The efficiency of fixed assets can be analyzed by calculating the fixed asset turnover ratio.
Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio
This ratio is of more significance to the manufacturing industry as compared to the other industries as there is a substantial purchase of property, plant & equipment in the manufacturing concern to get the required output.
The Formula of Fixed Asset Turnover RatioFormula Of Fixed Asset Turnover RatioThe fixed asset turnover ratio formula determines the ability of a business entity to generate revenue by employing its fixed assets. It is computed as the fraction of net sales and average net fixed assets. –
- Net sales are sales less returns and discounts
- And average fixed assets = (opening fixed assets + closing fixed assets) / 2
For example, Tricot Inc. reported its sales for the financial year 2018-19 as $400,000, and out of these sales returned were $4,000. Also, it reported its total property, plant, and equipment (PPE) as on 31st March 2019 as $200,000. The balance of PPE as of 1st April 2018 was $160,000.
- Now net salesNet SalesNet sales is the revenue earned by a company from the sale of its goods or services, and it is calculated by deducting returns, allowances, and other discounts from the company's gross sales. = $400,000 – $40,000 = $360,000
- Average fixed assets =($160,000 + $200,000)/2 =$180,000
So, Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio will be –
This ratio reflects how efficiently the management of the company is using its substantial fixed assets in generating the revenue of the firm. Higher the ratio, the higher is the efficiency of the fixed assets.
B) Current Assets
Current assetsCurrent AssetsCurrent assets refer to those short-term assets which can be efficiently utilized for business operations, sold for immediate cash or liquidated within a year. It comprises inventory, cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, etc. are such assets that are likely to be converted into cash within a year. The current assets include cash, account receivable, and inventories.
The ratios which help in the analysis of current assets are
It is a liquidity ratio that measures the ability of the company to pay off its short term debts.
The formula for the current ratio is:
- Current assets = Cash & Cash equivalents + Inventories + Accounts receivableAccounts ReceivableAccounts receivables refer to the amount due on the customers for the credit sales of the products or services made by the company to them. It appears as a current asset in the corporate balance sheet. + other assets that can be converted into cash within a year;
- Current Liabilities = Accounts payableAccounts PayableAccounts payable is the amount due by a business to its suppliers or vendors for the purchase of products or services. It is categorized as current liabilities on the balance sheet and must be satisfied within an accounting period. + short term debt+ current portion of long term debtCurrent Portion Of Long Term DebtCurrent Portion of Long-Term Debt (CPLTD) is payable within the next year from the date of the balance sheet, and are separated from the long-term debt as they are to be paid within next year using the company’s cash flows or by utilizing its current assets.
It is a liquidity ratio that measures the short term liquidity position of the company by calculating the ability of the company to pay off its current liabilities with the use of its most liquid assets.
- Where, quick assets = Cash & cash equivalents + Accounts receivable + other short term assetsShort Term AssetsShort term assets (also known as current assets) are the assets that are highly liquid in nature and can be easily sold to realize money from the market. They have a maturity of fewer than 12 months and are highly tradable and marketable in nature.
- Current liabilities = Accounts payable + short term debt + current portion of long term debt
Example: Microsoft Inc. is a manufacturing concern which reported the following items in the balance sheet:
Now the Total current assets = $10,000 + $6,000 + $11,000 + $3,000 = $30,000
- Quick assetsQuick AssetsQuick Assets are assets that are liquid in nature and can be converted into cash easily by liquidating them in the market. Fixed deposits, liquid funds, marketable securities, bank balances, and so on are examples. = $10,000+ $11,000 = $21,000
- Total current liabilities = $8,000 + $7,000 = $15,000
- Therefore, current ratioCurrent RatioThe current ratio is a liquidity ratio that measures how efficiently a company can repay it' short-term loans within a year. Current ratio = current assets/current liabilities = $30,000/$15,000 = 2:1
So, Quick Ratio will be –
Quick ratio = $21,000/$15,000 = 1.4:1
Investors are more attracted towards the company who is having plenty of cash reported on their balance sheetBalance SheetA balance sheet is one of the financial statements of a company that presents the shareholders' equity, liabilities, and assets of the company at a specific point in time. It is based on the accounting equation that states that the sum of the total liabilities and the owner's capital equals the total assets of the company. as the cash offers security to the investors because it can be used in the tough times. Increasing cash year to year is a good sign, but diminishing cash can be considered as a sign of trouble. But if plenty of cash is retained for many years, then investors should see why the management is not putting it into use. The reasons for maintaining a considerable amount as cash include management’s lack of interest in the investment opportunities, or maybe they are short-sighted, so they do not know how to utilize the cash. Even the cash flow analysis is done by the company to determine its source of cash generation and its application.
Inventories are the finished goods accumulated by the company for selling them to its customers. The investor will see how much money is tied up by the company in its inventory. To analyze the inventory, a company calculates its inventory turnover ratioCalculates Its Inventory Turnover RatioInventory Turnover Ratio is a measure to determine the efficiency of a Company concerning its overall inventory management. To calculate the ratio, divide the cost of goods sold by the gross inventory. , which is calculated as below:
Inventory Turnover Ratio = Cost of goods sold / Average inventory
- Cost of goods soldCost Of Goods SoldThe cost of goods sold (COGS) is the cumulative total of direct costs incurred for the goods or services sold, including direct expenses like raw material, direct labour cost and other direct costs. However, it excludes all the indirect expenses incurred by the company. = Opening stock + purchases – Closing stockClosing StockClosing stock or inventory is the amount that a company still has on its hand at the end of a financial period. It may include products getting processed or are produced but not sold. Raw materials, work in progress, and final goods are all included on a broad level.
- Average inventoryAverage InventoryAverage Inventory is the mean of opening and closing inventory of a particular period. It helps the management to understand the inventory that a business needs to hold during its daily course of business. = (Opening inventory + Closing inventory) / 2
This ratio calculates how fast the inventory is converted into sales. A higher inventory ratioInventory RatioInventory ratio or inventory turnover ratio is an activity ratio that depicts the frequency of replacing the stocks sold by the company in a certain period. It is evaluated as the proportion of the cost of goods sold to the average inventory. shows that the goods are sold quickly by the company and vice versa.
E) Accounts Receivables
Accounts receivable is the money due to the debtors of the firm. By analyzing accounts receivable, a company analysis the speed at which the amount is collected from the debtors.
For this, the company calculates the Accounts receivable turnover ratio, which is calculated as below:
Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio = Net credit sales/Average accounts receivable
- Net credit salesNet Credit SalesNet credit sales is the revenue generated from goods or services sold on credit excluding the sales discount, sales allowance and sales return. It even amounts to the accounts receivables for a certain accounting period. = Sales – Sales return – discounts
- Average accounts receivable = (Opening accounts receivable + closing accounts receivable) / 2
This ratio calculates the number of times the company collects the average accounts receivable over a given period. Higher the ratio higher is the efficiency of the company to collect its debtorsDebtorsA debtor is a person or entity that owes money to the other party in a transaction. The receiver is referred to as the creditor, and the payment terms vary for each transaction based on the terms and conditions agreed upon by the parties..
#2 – How to do Analysis of Liabilities on the Balance Sheet?
Liabilities include current liabilities and non-current liabilities. Current liabilities are obligations of the company to be paid within a year, whereas non-current liabilities are the obligations that are to be paid after a year.
A) Non-Current Liabilities
It can be done by the debt to equity ratioDebt To Equity RatioThe debt to equity ratio is a representation of the company's capital structure that determines the proportion of external liabilities to the shareholders' equity. It helps the investors determine the organization's leverage position and risk level. . The formula for the same is:
- Where long term debts = debts to be paid off after a year
- Shareholders equityShareholders EquityShareholder’s equity is the residual interest of the shareholders in the company and is calculated as the difference between Assets and Liabilities. The Shareholders' Equity Statement on the balance sheet details the change in the value of shareholder's equity from the beginning to the end of an accounting period. = Equity share capital + preference share capital + accumulated profits
For example, Mania Inc. has its equity share capital amounting to $100,000. Its Reserves and surplusReserves And SurplusReserves and Surplus is the amount kept aside from the profits that are to be used either for the business or for the shareholders to pay out dividends. Reserves and surplus is reflected under shareholders funds in the balance sheet. are $20,000, and the long term debts are $150,000
Therefore the debt to equity ratio = $150,000 / ($100,000 + $20,000) = 1.25:1
This ratio measures the proportion of the debt fund as compared to equity. It helps to know the relative weights of the debts and the equity.
B) Current Liabilities
The current liabilities can also be analyzed with the help of the current ratio and the quick ratio. Both ratios are discussed above in the current assets section.
The amount of capital contributedAmount Of Capital ContributedContributed capital is the amount that shareholders have given to the company for buying their stake and is recorded in the books of accounts as the common stock and additional paid-in capital under the equity section of the company’s balance sheet. by the shareholders is represented by the Equity and is also called as shareholder’s equity. Equity is calculated by subtracting total liabilities from the total assets
There are various ways in which equity can be analyzed.
Return on equityReturn On EquityReturn on Equity (ROE) represents financial performance of a company. It is calculated as the net income divided by the shareholders equity. ROE signifies the efficiency in which the company is using assets to make profit. an important determinant which shows that company how the company is managing the capital of shareholder. Higher the ROE, better it is for shareholders. It is calculated by dividing the net income by the shareholder’s equity.
For example, XYZ had $20 million net income last year and shareholders’ equity of $40 million last year, then.
ROE = $20,000,000/$40,000,000 = 50%
It shows that XYZ generated $0.50 profit for every $1 of the equity of shareholders with ROE of 50%.
Debt to Equity Ratio
Another ratio that helps analyze equity is the debt-equity ratio. The same is explained in case of non- current liabilities where Mania Inc, is having a debt-equity ratio of 1.25. The company has a higher debt-equity ratio as a debt of the company is more than the equity. A lower debt-equity ratio implies more financial stability. Companies having a higher debt-equity ratio, like in the present example, are considered to be riskier to the investors and the creditors of the company.
This article has been a guide to Balance Sheet Analysis. Here we discuss step by step how to analyze balance sheet assets, liabilities, and equity along with examples and explanations. You may learn more about accounting from the following articles –