Realization Principle

What is Realization Principle?

Realization Principle is a revenue recognition principle which states that the income or revenue is recognized only when it is earned. The company is reasonably certain that the payment against the same will be received from the customer. It is generally occurs used when the underlying goods are actually delivered, or risk and rewards are transferred, or income gets due, irrespective of the fact that amount is received or not.

Explanation

Realization Principle

Realization principle deals with the recognition of revenue, i.e., profit should be realized when goods are transferred, or risk and rewards are transferred. In the case of income, revenue is to be recognized when income is due. In case of a continuous service business like real estate business, revenue or income is to be recognized on percentage completion method. According to this concept, revenue is to be recognized only when it is earned, or it becomes reasonably certain that the company will receive the payment from its customer where this revenue is realized when risk and rewards are transferred, or income is due. Realization principle does not associate with receipt of cash, i.e., income is to be realized, or revenue is to be recognized even if the cash is not received. For example, if the advance is received, but goods are not transferred, revenue cannot be recognized. It is to be recognized only when goods are delivered.

Examples

Example #1

A received $ 20,000 on 23-03-2020 as an advance against the goods that are to be purchased on 02-04-2020 amounting to $ 30,000. Goods are delivered on 05-04-2020. State when revenue is to be said to be realized as per the realization principle?

Realization Principle Example 1

Solution – As per Realization principle, in case of goods, revenue is to be recognized only when the risk and rewards are transferred concerning an underlying asset where risk and rewards are said to be transferred when the goods are delivered, or seller accepted his responsibility of the goods in case of damage or destroy at buyer place.

In the above case, the goods are delivered on 05-04-2020. So, the revenue is said to be realized on 05-04-2020. Hence sales are to be recorded on 05-04-2020 and not on 23-3-2020. Realization principle does not deal with the receipt of amount.

Example #2

ABC Ltd. sells trucks to its sole dealer and enters into a contract for delivering the truck to the customers along with maintenance for one year. State how revenue is to be recognized as per the recognition principle?

Solution – As per Recognition principle, in the case of goods, revenue is to be recognized when all the risk and rewards related to the underlying asset is transferred.

In the case of services or investment, it is to be recognized when income is accrued.

In the case of continuous services, it is to be recognized on a percentage completion basis.

In the above case, the sale of truck is related to the sale of goods and maintenance contract is the continuous service which is to be provided to the customer for one year period.

So according to the recognition principle, the revenue of trucks is to be recognized when risk and rewards related to the truck are transferred, or truck is delivered whichever is earlier.

In case of a maintenance contract, revenue is to be recognized on percentage completion basis, i.e. out of total trucks sold, only the trucks for which warranty period is completed, i.e., the service contract expired are to be recognized.

Importance

  • It ensures a true and fair view of the accounts as profit is to be realized and recognized only when the seller transfers risk and rewards.
  • The risk can be minimized through the realization principle.
  • True revenue earned during the year is given importance and recognition instead of a collection of revenue.
  • It ensures recognition consistently.
  • In the case of continuous services percentage of completion, the method can be used for recognition of revenue. Hence it provides a solution for all types of revenue recognition based on the type of revenue.
  • It gives importance to legal ownership which is acceptable and enforceable by law.

Advantages

  • Realization concept gives more importance to the recognition of revenue.
  • It is commonly followed in a business organization as per the accrual system of accounting.
  • It guides in the accounting process and recognition of revenue.
  • Through realization principles, the inflation of revenue and profits can be controlled.
  • The true and fair view is better reflected in the realization concept.

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