- Valuation Basics
- Discounted Cash Flows
- Going Concern concept
- Dividend Discount Model (DDM)
- Gordon Growth Model
- Discounted Cash Flow Analysis (DCF)
- Free Cash Flow to Firm (FCFF)
- Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE)
- Terminal Value
- Cost of Equity
- CAPM Beta
- Calculate Beta Coefficient
- Market Risk Premium
- Risk Premium formula
- Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)
- Security Market Line (SML)
- Systematic Risk vs Unsystematic risk
- Free Cash Flow (FCF)
- Free Cash Flow Yield (FCFY)
- Mistakes in DCF
- Treasury Stock Method
- CAPM Formula
- Cash Flow vs Free Cash Flow
- Business Risk vs Financial risk
- Business Risk
- Financial Risk
- Valuation Multiples
- Equity Value vs Enterprise Value
- Trading Multiples
- Comparable Company Analysis
- Transaction Multiples
- (Price Earning Ratio (P/E)
- PE Ratio formula
- Price to Cash Flow (P/CF)
- Price to Book Value Ratio (P/B)
- Price To Book Value formula
- Price Earning Growth Ratio (PEG)
- Trailing PE vs Forward PE
- Forward PE
- EV to EBITDA Multiple
- EV to EBIT Ratio
- EV to Sales Ratio
- EV to Assets
- Other Valuation Tools
- Valuation Interview Prep
Equity Value – Let us have a look at the above graph of Equity Market Value of Exxon, Apple and Amazon. We note that in 2007-08, Exxon was far ahead in terms of equity market value compared to Amazon and Apple. However, over the years, Apple and Amazon’s market value of equity has catapulted and now they are leading companies by equity market value. Does equity value even matter?
In this article, we will talk about the following –
- What is Equity Value?
- Equity Value Formula
- Equity Market Value Interpretation
- Equity Value Example
- Equity Market Value Calculation of Top Companies
What is Equity Value?
Equity Value is the sum-total of the values the shareholders have made available for the business. Equity Value is also called as Market Capitalization and can be calculated by multiplying the market value per share by the total number of shares outstanding. Equity market value is very important for a business owner especially when he plans out to sell his business. Equity Market value gives you a good measure of what a seller of business would receive after the debt has been paid.
Let’s have a look at the equity value formula.
Equity Value Formula
There are two ways in which you can calculate Market Value of Equity
Equity Value Formula #1 –
Market Value of equity = Share Price x Number of Oustanding Shares
- Share price is the last traded price of the stock
- Number of Oustanding shares should be the latest figures available
Equity Value Formula #2 –
This second equity market value formula is commonly used to find the “fair equity value” (using DCF Approach)
We use the following steps to calculate the fair equity market value –
- Use Discounted Cash Flow approach using FCFF to find the Enterprise value of the firm. DCF will provide us the fair valuation of the total firm (Enterprise value)
- Use the formula, Enterprise Value (calculated using DCF) = Fair Equity Value + Preferred Shares + Minority Interest + Outstanding Debt – Cash & Bank balances
- With this, we can calculate Fair Equity Value = Enterprise Value – Preferred Shares – Minority Interest – Outstanding Debt + Cash & Bank Balances
Target Price of the stock = Fair Equity Value / Number of Oustanding Shares
Please note that Market Price of stock and Target Price of stock are two different things.
Let us assume that Market Price of Apple is $110 per share. Using DCF, you may get a target price of Apple stock as $135 per share. This means that Apple is undervalued and should reach the target of $135 per share in the near future.
Equity Market Value Interpretation
Equity market value is more useful to the seller of a business than an investor. Let’s have a detailed look at this.
Let’s say that Mr A has a company which he wants to sell. Now he is concerned about the valuation of the company. One day, while searching for buyers of his business, Mr A got a proposal from Mr B. Mr B said that he would buy Mr A’s business at a certain valuation. Mr A went back home and thought about the valuation Mr B gave. Mr A mentioned that he has taken some loan for his business which has not been fully paid yet. Mr B said that then he would pay the same as the valuation he has calculated; however, Mr A will only receive the money after payment of debt. And that’s “market value of equity” in the actual sense.
Now let’s understand it in numbers. Mr B said he would pay US $10 million for Mr A’s business before knowing that Mr A has still to pay some debt. Mr A mentioned that the outstanding debt is US $2 million. Then Mr B agreed to pay Mr A, US $10 million for the business but that would be inclusive of the outstanding debt. That means Mr A would only get US $8 million. Here the US $10 million is the enterprise value and US $8 million is the equity market value.
Equity Value Example
Let us do a basic equity value example of comparing two companies on the basis of equity market value and finding the larger one. Here are the details of Company A and Company B –
|In US $||Company A||Company B|
|Market Price of Shares||100||90|
In this case, we have been given both the numbers of outstanding shares and the market price of shares. Let’s calculate equity market value of the Company A and Company B.
|In US $||Company A||Company B|
|Outstanding Shares (A)||30000||50000|
|Market Price of Shares (B)||100||90|
|Equity Market Value (A*B)||3,000,000||4,500,000|
We note that market value of equity of Company A is more than equity market value of Company B. But let’s tweak few things and calculate Enterprise Value and let’s see how it turns out for investors.
Equity Value Calculation
Now that we’ve gone through some examples of equity market value, let’s now calculate equity market value of top companies. Please have a look at the table below.
- Column 1 contains the number of outstanding shares.
- column 2 is the current market price.
- Column 3 is the Equity Market Value calculation = Shares Outstanding (1) x Price (2)
If you want to calculate Equity Market Value of Facebook, it is simply the outstanding number of shares (2.872 billion) x Price ($123.18) = $353.73 billion
In the final analysis, it can be said that equity market value is the best method if an owner of a business wants to know how much he would get by selling his business. From investors’ point of view, enterprise value will fit the bill.
This has been a guide to what is Equity value, its formulas along with practical examples. Here we also look at the market value of equity calculation of top companies. You may also look at the following articles to learn more about valuations –