- Valuation Basics
- Enterprise Value
- Enterprise Value Formula
- Equity Value
- Equity Value Formula
- Market Capitalization
- Market Capitalization Formula
- Internal Growth Rate Formula
- Intrinsic Value Formula
- Absolute Valuation Formula
- Assessed Value vs Market Value
- Required Rate of Return Formula
- Historical Cost vs Fair Value
- Large Cap vs Small Cap
- Free Float Market Capitalization
- Market Cap vs Enterprise Value
- Book Value Vs Market Value
- Value vs Growth Stocks
- Book Value Per share
- Fair value vs Market value
- Discounted Cash Flows
- Going Concern concept
- Dividend Discount Model (DDM)
- Gordon Growth Model
- Gordon Growth Model Formula
- Discounted Cash Flow Analysis (DCF)
- DCF Formula (Discounted Cash Flow)
- Free Cash Flow Formula (FCF)
- Free Cash Flow to Firm (FCFF)
- Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE)
- Terminal Value
- Terminal Value Formula
- Cost of Equity
- Cost of Equity Formula
- Risk-Free Rate
- Sustainable Growth Rate Formula
- CAPM Beta
- Stock Beta
- Calculate Beta Coefficient
- Unlevered Beta
- Market Risk Premium
- Equity Risk Premium
- Risk Premium formula
- Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)
- Cost of Capital Formula
- WACC Formula
- Security Market Line (SML)
- Systematic Risk vs Unsystematic risk
- Free Cash Flow (FCF)
- Free Cash Flow Yield (FCFY)
- Mistakes in DCF
- Treasury Stock Method
- CAPM Formula
- Cash Flow vs Free Cash Flow
- Business Risk vs Financial risk
- Business Risk
- Financial Risk
- Valuation Multiples
- Equity Value vs Enterprise Value
- Trading Multiples
- Comparable Company Analysis
- Transaction Multiples
- (Price Earning Ratio (P/E)
- PE Ratio formula
- PEG Ratio Formula
- Price to Cash Flow (P/CF)
- Price to Book Value Ratio (P/B)
- Price To Book Value formula
- Price Earning Growth Ratio (PEG)
- Trailing PE vs Forward PE
- Forward PE
- EV to EBITDA Multiple
- EV to EBIT Ratio
- EV to Sales Ratio
- EV to Assets
- Other Valuation Tools
- Valuation Interview Prep
Gordon Growth Model Formula
Gordon Growth Model Formula is used to find the intrinsic value of the company by discounting the future dividend payouts of the company.
There are two formulas of Growth Growth Model
We will look at both the formulas one by one
#1 – Gordon Growth Model Formula with Constant Growth in Future Dividends
The Gordon growth model formula that with the constant growth rate in future dividends is as per below.
Let’s have a look at the formula first –
- P0 = Stock Price;
- Div1= Estimated dividends for the next period;
- r = Required Rate of Return;
- g = Growth Rate
Explanation of Constant Gordon Growth Model Formula
In the above formula, we have two different components.
The first component of the formula is the estimated dividends for the next period. To find out the estimated dividends, you need to look at the historical data and find out the past growth rate. You can also take help from financial analysts and the projections they make. The estimated dividends won’t be accurate, but the idea is to predict something that is closer to the actual future dividends.
The second component has two parts – the growth rate and required rate of return.
To find out the growth rate, we need to use the following formula –
And ROE is the return on equity (net income/shareholders’ equity)
To find out the required rate of return, we can use the following formula –
In other terms, we can find out the required rate of return just by adding a dividend yield and the growth rate.
Use of Constant Rate Gordon Growth Model Formula
By using this formula, we will be able to understand the present stock price of a company. If we look at both of the components in the formula, we will see that we are using the similar present value method to find out the stock price.
First, we are calculating the estimated dividends. Then, we are dividing it by the difference between the required rate of return and the growth rate. That means the discounting rate in this regard is the difference between the required rate of return and the growth rate. By dividing the same, we can easily find out the present value of stock price.
Example of Gordon Growth Model Formula with Constant Growth
Hi-Fi Company has the following information –
- Estimated dividends for the next period – $40,000
- Required rate of return – 8%
- Growth rate – 4%
Find out the stock price of Hi-Fi Company.
In the above example, we know the estimated dividends, growth rate, and also required a rate of return.
By using the stock – PV with constant growth formula, we get –
- P0 = Div1 / (r – g)
- Or, P0 = $40,000 / (8% – 4%)
- Or, P0 = $40,000 / 4%
- Or, P0 = $40,000 * 100/4 = $10, 00,000.
By simply using the above formula, we will be able to find out the present stock price. It can be a great tool for the investors and the management of any company. One thing we should notice here is that the stock price is the total stock price since we assumed the estimated dividends for all the shareholders. By simply taking the number of shares into account, we would be able to find out the stock price per share.
Gordon Growth Model Calculator
You can use the following Stock – PV with Constant Growth Calculator.
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Gordon Growth Model Formula in Excel (with excel template)
Let us now do the same example above in Excel. This is very simple. You need to provide the three inputs of Dividends, Rate of Return and Growth Rate.
You can easily find out the stock price of the company in the template provided.
You can download this Gordon Growth Model Formula template here – Gordon Growth Model Formula with Constant Growth Excel Template
#2 – Gordon Growth Formula with Zero Growth in Future Dividends
The only difference in this formula is the “Growth factor”.
Here’s the formula –
Here, P = Price of the Stock; r = required rate of return
Explanation of Zero Growth Formula
This formula is based on the dividend discount model.
Thus, we place the estimated dividends in the numerator and the required rate of return in the denominator.
Since we are calculating with zero growth, we will skip the growth factor. And as a result, the required rate of return would be the discounting rate. For example, if we assume that a company would pay $100 as a dividend in the next period, and the required rate of return is 10%; then the price of the stock would be $1000.
One thing we should keep in mind while calculating the formula is the period we use for the calculation. The period of the dividends should be similar to the period of the required rate of return.
So, if you consider the annual dividends, you need to also take annual required rate of return to maintain the integrity in the calculation. For calculating the required rate of return, we will take dividend yield into consideration (r = Dividends / Price). And that we can find out by using the historical data. The required rate of return is the minimum rate that the investors would accept.
Use of Gordon Growth Model Formula (Zero Growth)
In this formula, it is estimated dividends for the next period. And the discounting rate is the required rate of return i.e. the rate of return that the investors accept. There are various methods by using which the investors and the financial analysts can find out the present value of the stock, but this formula is the most fundamental of all.
Thus, before investing in the company, every investor should use this formula to find out the present value of the stock.
Example of Gordon Growth Model Formula (Zero Growth)
Let’s take an example to illustrate Gordon Growth Model Formula with Zero Growth Rate
Big Brothers Inc. has the following information for every investor –
- The estimated dividends for the next period – $50,000
- The required rate of return – 10%
Find out the price of the stock.
By using the Stock – PV with Zero Growth Formula, we get –
- P = Dividend / r
- Or, P = $50,000 / 10% = $500,000.
- The stock price would $500,000.
One thing you should notice here is that $500,000 is the total market price of the stock. And depending on the number of outstanding shares, we would find out the price per share.
In this case, let’s say that the number of outstanding shares is 50,000.
That means the stock price would be = ($500,000 / 50,000) = $10 per share.
Gordon Zero Growth Calculator
You can use the following Gordon Zero Growth Rate Calculator
Gordon Zero Growth Formula in Excel (with excel template)
Let us now do the same example above in Excel. This is very simple. You need to provide the two inputs of Dividend and Rate of Return.
You can easily find out the price of the stock in the template provided.
This has been a guide to Gordon Growth Model Formula. Here we discuss the two types of Gordon Growth formulas including constant growth and zero growth along with its uses practical examples and calculations. You may learn more about valuations from the following articles –